I was asked for a better explanation of the characteristics of aether. H/T to Pascvaks “why would one think that aether has charge” so I will attempt to expand on that point.
During the early days of research on electrical phenomena, over distance, aether (ether) was the accepted explanation. Various experimenters attempted to discern the characteristics of this medium by many means, some successfully, others failure. One of the earliest demonstrated that every electron in the universe felt the actions of every other electron. The charge or force field of every electron repels every other one over any distance. This causes a powerful overall field.
Tesla said the following;
The technical editor of the New York Herald Tribune’s radio section responded thus to an article by Laurence M. Cockaday:
“I have read the article, and I quite agree with the opinion expressed – that wireless power transmission is impractical with present apparatus. This conclusion will be naturally reached by any one who recognizes the nature of the agent by which the impulses are transmitted in present wireless practice.
“When Dr. Heinrich Hertz undertook his experiments from 1887 to 1889 his object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel. He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory. But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.
“I had maintained for many years before that such a medium as supposed could not exist, and that we must rather accept the view that all space is filled with a gaseous substance. On repeating the Hertz experiments, with much improved and very powerful apparatus, I satisfied myself that what he had observed was nothing else but effects of longitudinal waves in a gaseous medium, that is to say, waves, propagated by alternate compression and expansion. He had observed waves in the ether much of the nature of sound waves in the air.
“Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a medium. But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts. I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity. The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable. Subsequently those particles were called electrons.
“One of the first striking observations made with my tubes was that a purplish glow for several feet around the end of the tube was formed, and I readily ascertained that it was due to the escape of the charges of the particles as soon as they passed out into the air; for it was only in a nearly perfect vacuum that these charges could be confined to them. The coronal discharge proved that there must be a medium besides air in the space, composed of particles immeasurably smaller than those of air, as otherwise such a discharge would not be possible. On further investigation I found that this gas was so light that a volume equal to that of the earth would weigh only about one-twentieth of a pound.
“The velocity of any sound wave depends on a certain ratio between elasticity and density, and for this ether or universal gas the ratio is 800,000,000,000 times greater than for air. This means that the velocity of the sound waves propagated through the ether is about 300,000 times greater than that of the sound waves in air, which travel at approximately 1,085 feet a second. Consequently the speed in ether is 900,000 × 1,085 feet, or 186,000 miles, and that is the speed of light.
In 1918 Einstein publicly alluded to that new definition for the first time. Then, in the early 1920s, in a lecture which he was invited to give at Lorentz’s university in Leiden, Einstein sought to reconcile the theory of relativity with his mentor’s cherished concept of the aether. In this lecture Einstein stressed that special relativity took away the last mechanical property of Lorentz’s aether: immobility. However, he continued that special relativity does not necessarily rule out the aether, because the latter can be used to give physical reality to acceleration and rotation. This concept was fully elaborated within general relativity, in which physical properties (which are partially determined by matter) are attributed to space, but no substance or state of motion can be attributed to that “aether” (aether = curved space-time).
In another paper of 1924, named “Concerning the Aether”, Einstein argued that Newton’s absolute space, in which acceleration is absolute, is the “Aether of Mechanics”. And within the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell and Lorentz one can speak of the “Aether of Electrodynamics”, in which the aether possesses an absolute state of motion. As regards special relativity, also in this theory acceleration is absolute as in Newton’s mechanics. However, the difference from the electromagnetic aether of Maxwell and Lorentz lies in the fact, that “because it was no longer possible to speak, in any absolute sense, of simultaneous states at different locations in the aether, the aether became, as it were, four dimensional, since there was no objective way of ordering its states by time alone.“. Now the “aether of special relativity” is still “absolute”, because matter is affected by the properties of the aether, but the aether is not affected by the presence of matter. This asymmetry was solved within general relativity. Einstein explained that the “aether of general relativity” is not absolute, because matter is influenced by the aether, just as matter influences the structure of the aether.
Albert Einstein was working on causes of mass/inertia and gravity when he got sidetracked into studies of actions of light and then relativity. To understand gravity, you must understand mass/inertia and for that the study of the behavior of light is necessary and due to it’s strange behavior you get relativity.
Modern astrophysics has deduced that a “Dark Energy” must exist as well as “Dark Matter”, because the known mass and energy effecting, visible matter, could only account for about 3% of the needed force and matter and the other 97% must be “dark” something. So we must return to the definition of Aether.
Aether must be the cause of mass/inertia effects to be invisible and act with mass. Aether must have charge to act with force against it’s self to appear to be solid to EMF energies. To have mass/inertia effects there must be something external to cause a resistance to changes in relative motion. The need to have a quanta that appears to be both a wave and a partial and exhibit an energy transfer event when detected. The need for it to be able travel over time and distance beyond knowing with no real mass. This requires something that can deliver a unit of energy and then not appear to be there. So we have this problem, describe a thing that we need to describe effects but we can’t detect directly. We know that charge in motion causes EMF effects and we have EMF effects. We have units , quanta, of EMF effects and therefor units or quanta of something that carries the charge.
Neutrons and Protons have by far, the greater mass/inertia because at their heart they have a deep lack of charge and have a large pull on the charge aether. Electrons, Photons have charge and push on aether and therefor act as in a super conductor as the aether moves around them as they travel, almost no mass/inertia. pg