pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.

Monthly Archives: February 2012

Primary driver

Primary Coil Driver

Primary Coil Driver

Primary Coil Driver

The primary coil driver set is assembled and ready to go. Left to right, Ganged condenser to drive the primary coil, spark gap attached to aluminum heat sink, chokes for suppression of back EMF to protect the neon transformer and most important part an OFF switch! see spark gap condenser test

The yellow wire is high tension ignition wire. This will allow me to operate the power supply 20 feet remotely from the very high voltage coils and any fields generated on the surface of the disk.

Primary Driver top view

 Driver set top view

When a neon transformer is used it must be protected from the possibility of a high energy kick back from the magnetic collapse of the field in the secondary coil.  A properly sized choke will easily pass current at the 60 cycle frequency of the transformer but strongly resist current at the high frequency of the primary LC  circuit of about 18,000hz.The frequency of the LC tank circuit (inductance/capacitance) of the primary is caused by the charge / discharge of the capacitor through the spark gap and the coil.

side view of primary coil driver

side view of primary coil driver

Driver set side view

The spark gap is to force the charge voltage from the transformer to rise to the break down point of the gap,  current in the circuit has inertia so it will over discharge the capacitance and cause the current to reverse flow. This back and forth flow will continue until the voltage in the circuit is too low to cross the gap. If the circuit is designed correctly the gap will break down early enough in the 60 cycle to bridge the time that the transformer has low voltage from its’ 60 cycle output. This is electronics on a massive scale.

be sure to click on the pictures for more information in the picture comments.  pg


Pruning for the next Years crop

Unpruned Fig Tree

 Pruning a fig tree

This is a Desert King Fig. A type of white canning/fresh eating fig, very fast grower and good producer. Figs like heavy clay soil and some water for best production. This 15 year old tree really likes it here. Fig trees are started from suckers that sprout from the roots. I have cloned near a hundred trees from this one, and they start producing fruit in 3 to 4 years! Great gift for anyone with the space.  Great shade and fruit but very messy and draws birds. I cover it with a bird net in the early summer to protect the crop from birds. Then that must be replaced every year if you want fruit to enjoy and share. Because this is a fast grower it needs heavy pruning every winter, lots of brush to deal with! Other varieties grow much less but are slower to produce and produce less fruit. As they are slower they are later in the season to produce for an extended season.

Pruned Fig Tree

A pruned fig tree

For the production of fruit that can be easily harvested the fruiting area must be held down near the ground. As this is also a shade tree some compromise must be reached, In this case I want fruit 6 feet to 12 feet above the ground. Many fig trees produce 2 crops per year. The first, at bud points on last years growth in the early summer and the second, on the new growth in the late summer.  So there must be a method to your pruning. Every year I need to push the growth point down because it progresses up with every years growth. Every winter pruning starts with cutting the top down to the needed height and then thinning out the interior to achieve the needed effect.  Meanwhile keeping in mind the need to force new growth down lower for later years renewal.

Close up of pruned branches

Fig pruning

If you look closely ( click on images ) there is old wood that is grey,  and there is wood that is olive drab or gray green, that is last years wood and I leave 2 to 4 bud points for the early summer fig crop as well as a base for the next years growth. All other interior growth is cut away to thin growth points. You must remember not to get greedy, too many fruiting points will result in small fruit of poor quality. Too heavy pruning will result in heavy regrowth and little fruit. Fig trees are like apple trees You can’t kill them with too heavy pruning. So if you need to reclaim an old tree go for it, severely reshape the tree, it will reward you the second year.

Trellised Grapes

Grape vineyard

Every year the grape vines must be cut back to the main growth arms to restore the balance between roots and vines. Remember grape vines can grow themselves to death. and too heavy fruiting will result in small poor quality fruit. There are many different styles of staking and trellising the main trunk of a grape vine but the pruning follows two styles, One for wine and one for table fruit. This will depend on the variety used. These are wine varieties and are fixed to a 3 wire fence trellis with plants every 4.5 feet.

Pruned Grapes on Trellis

The rows are pairs 4feet apart with 8feet between pairs. For wine production the plants are heavily cut back to a few buds that will grow into canes with a few bunches per cane. Wine grape vines produce grape bunches on the 1st, 2ed, 3rd node points of the new canes and you want a bunch per foot of trellis.

For eating grapes, they produce fruiting canes from the 1st, 2ed, 3rd cane nodes and fruit bunches from the 3,4&5 nodes so they must be pruned to canes and buds. Canes for this years fruiting and buds for next years canes.  My eating grapes are grown on an overhead trellis.

To the left in this picture is an espaliered row of figs pruned low for handy fruit along the road way between the vineyard and the kitchen garden.  pg

Condenser / Sparkgap test

Condenser / Spark gap test

Condenser & spark gap with 15,000vac transformer

  Main condenser

Top picture is of main condenser, spark gap and neon transformer. This test of the main condenser was its’ first “smoke test” to see if my design would function as planed. Condenser is made up of aluminum foil lined PET plastic jars set up similar to Leyden Jars fixed end to end and paralleled to create a bank,  .0196mfd – 40,000vac condenser to power the primary coils through the spark gap. The power at this time is supplied by a 15,000 vac 30ma center tapped neon illumination transformer. ( built in 1940s)

Spark gap

  Spark gap

This second picture is of the spark gap and transformer. To the left is an electrode from a Leyden jar as well as a 4 inch pocket wrench. The spark gap is constructed from two engine XL spark plugs that have had the grounding electrode and some of the threaded shank removed. These are threaded into an extruded aluminum form,  so that the central electrodes face one other, to provide a base as well as a heat sink. The spark gap can be adjusted from as small as 3/8 inch to as large as 1 inch.

Spark gap without condenser

 Spark gap powered

This is being directly powered by the neon transformer with no load. The arc is small thready and produces a lot of heat and not much light. It is also quiet, just a light crackle.

You may have to look closely, click on the image or do an enlarge to see the arc.

This is the first time in 16 years that I have powered up this transformer, good to see that it still works.

Spark gap with condenser

 Spark with condenser

I hooked up the condenser in parallel and turned the thing on, real smoke test. WOW! very hard arc, very bright and white, lots of UV and very loud hiss, not much heat! I am pleased with this spark gap design and the output of my home made condenser.

The Tesla Coil Builders need to see this as the spark gap is the most difficult part of a tesla coil device.  I’m pleased with the outcome of this test, I will continue & assemble the primary driver   😎  pg

Atmosphere Heat

Atmospherics of heat and water

Troposphere Atmospheric Heat

The Troposphere

The Troposphere is that part of the atmosphere below the tropopause that is the active area of climate and weather and is the focus of this post. Water is the main active controlling constituent of this level of the atmosphere.

The tropopause is the level that pressure and temperature limit water vapor existence. Above is the Stratosphere.

In the artwork to the left we see light blue, to signify water vapor rising and dark blue, water descending.  As water vapor cools it reaches the dew point and condenses to water and creates clouds, fog or dew on objects. Water vapor as a gas molecule is 68% of the mass or weight of oxygen and nitrogen molecules and rises in massive amounts of convection, this creates clouds as the vapor cools above the dew point level and condenses. Water vapor occupies 1600 times the space that condensed water occupies, thus creating low pressure inside the cloud being formed. Much of the water vapor originates from the surface as water evaporates from land and sea. The rest is evaporated water already in the air as clouds and precipitation.

“Gravity concentrates matter and energy toward the planetary surface. This creates the “Ideal” lapse rate.The hydro cycle is an effective heat pump, moving energy from near the surface up towards the tropopause for radiation to space, superimposed on the ‘ideal’ lapse rate which is always in the background. Surface atmospheric motion at, and just above, the surface are subjected to an enhanced Coriolis effect ~at the region of the Ferrel Cells, which encourages circular atmospheric motion relative to the surface. This moves ‘weather’ atmospheric conditions, about in the Troposphere. Solar heating of the Troposphere changes it’s volume and therefor altitude and latitude of weather conditions. The Oceans are a vital part of the Troposphere as they are a massive reservoir of water and solar energy for the hydro cycle that moves energy from the surface to the Tropopause at the base of the Stratosphere for radiation to space”.  from comment on

Atmosphere Heat 2

Atmosphere heat depth from tropics to polar regions

Energy Transfer

Radiation or Conduction


Gravity and Aether