pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.

Monthly Archives: February 2016

Discovery of Gravity Waves?

Febuary 11 2016  LIGO

LIGO announces discovery of gravity waves.  pdf


 A pictorial representation of gravity waves in the fabric of space caused by 2 black holes spiraling together

Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory:

For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.
The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory
(LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA.
The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT. The discovery, accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters, was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
The twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors,

Aerial view of the LIGO detector in Hanford, WA. [Image: LIGO] – See more at:
Basic Design of the LIGO Interferometer
Layout of the LIGO Interferometer that measures the warpage of the earth as the force passes through the material of the planet. Lasers measure the differences in distance between the detectors as the earth is effected by the passing wave. The use of two observatories revels the direction of the point of origin.
At each observatory, the two-and-a-half-mile (4-km) long L-shaped LIGO interferometer uses laser light split into two beams that travel back and forth down the arms (four-foot diameter tubes kept under a near-perfect vacuum). The beams are used to monitor the distance between mirrors precisely positioned at the ends of the arms. According to Einstein’s theory, the distance between the mirrors will change by an infinitesimal amount when a gravitational wave passes by the detector. A change in the lengths of the arms smaller than one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton, (10 to the-19) meter, can be detected.

Now that I have the experiment information down I can make my own remarks. A good follow up article on the experiment and it’s equipment.

The detection of gravitational waves – a triumph of science enabled by fossil fuels

It is wonderful that real experiments are carried out and reported on. But I reserve the right to infer my own conclusions from the results…pg

A tale of the first Solo flight

The airplane involved was a beautiful twin of the one below.


PA-22-108  Piper Colt  Specifications:

The airplane is a two-place, high wing, single engine airplane equipped with tricycle landing gear, constructed of welded steel tubing covered with Grade “A” fabric and finished with fire resistant butyrate dope.
This airplane is certified in the normal and utility category. In the normal category all aerobatic maneuvers including spins are prohibited. See the aircraft’s P.O.H. for approved maneuvers when in the utility category. The airplane is approved for day and night VFR/IFR operations when equipped in accordance with F.A.R. 91 or F.A.R 135.

The aircraft is powered by a Lycoming O-235-C1B or C1 and is rated at 108 horsepower. It is a four cylinder, normally aspirated, direct drive, air cooled, horizontally opposed, carburetor equipped engine.

The fuel for the Colt is carried in an 18-gallon fuel tank located in the inboard end of the left wing. As optional equipment, an auxiliary tank, located in the right wing, provides an additional 18 gallons of fuel. The auxiliary tank must be used in level flight only. An electric fuel gauge for each tank is located on the instrument panel.

Electrical power for the Colt is supplied by a 12 volt, direct current system. For all normal operations, power is provided by a 12 volt, 25-ampere generator. A 12-volt, 24 ampere battery is used in the system to furnish power for starting as a reserve power source.


So begins the tale;

In early 1968 I was station at the U.S.Navy Base at Subic Bay, Philippines and decided that learning to fly was an interesting talent to pursue. There was a flying club at the adjoining Cubi Point Naval Air Station that provided aircraft and instruction to members, so I joined.  The club had two PA-22s for our training use, two  T-34s for more advanced use, as well as certificated instructors that were available to hire for the members.

After 10 hours of ground school, the flight training began. My instructor, a former Alaskan Bush Pilot.   After filing a flight plan with  air operations we pre-flight the airplane, kick the tires, check the fuel, untie the airplane from it’s anchors and fire up the engine, Cool!  Call up uniflight for taxi instructions to the flight line and then call up the tower. Identify ourselves, We are ready for take off.

The Navy of that time felt that it was a good idea to have semi trained pilots available to act as co-pilots with real Naval Pilots in case of an emergency need to move all of their airplanes during a pilot shortage. At least that was the excuse that was used to justify our use of military facilities for “Private club” use. At times we helped with the on the job training of the new tower controllers under much slower conditions then existed during Jet operations. It was kind of cool to be flying a brightly colored, rag covered, powered box kite among the heavy jets dressed in their somber warpaint. Just need to, NOT get in their way.

After clearance to take off, we depart the area toward the north over Subic City to an old, out of the way dirt strip, 20 miles out in the jungle, to practice flight maneuvers as well as touch & go, landing / takeoffs. After several of these we return to the base pattern and land after 2-1/2 to 3 hours of flight time.

After one of these touch & goes during the third day of instruction the instructor asked me to land and stop on the end of the dirt strip. He opened his door, hopped out, and said “Take her around on your own”.  OMG! ,,,,,Er ok. After 7 hours of total flight time I’m not so sure I am ready for this.

Well, I sped up the engine, taxi to the down wind of the runway, turned into the breeze, fire walled the throttle and with 200lbs less weight in the airplane it quickly took off, almost jumped into the air and quickly rose to 3,000 feet!  I flew a nice square pattern and soon found myself lined up with the down wind end of the runway.  Time to begin the decent back to the GROUND. I set up the aircraft trim for landing, throttled back, carburetor heat on to prevent ice buildup inside the carburetor and add a click of flaps to improve slow speed lift and slow the decent speed. This is not so bad, good glide slope, lined up with the runway. Everything looks good.

Just as I flare out to touch down, a hard cross wind hits, the airplane is floating off of the runway and over the 6 foot tall elephant grass.

OH CRAP!  I am nursing the aircraft controls to keep it on the ground effect bubble to keep the wheels out of the tall grass. Get rid of the power robbing carb-heat, smoothly adding throttle so the engine speeds up without stalling, and soon it all works. Air speed increases, I’m flying again! Slowly I get rid of flaps, gain airspeed and altitude.

I’m up in the air with airspeed and altitude, life is good, but the instructor is still standing on the end of the runway, 20 miles out in the jungle.

Back into the landing pattern I go. Now! how do I land in a stiff cross wind? Well I do remember hearing this discussed by other pilots. Maybe even mentioned during ground school instruction.

As I approach the end of the runway the plane is crabbed a good 30 degrees into the wind to move inline with the center of the runway. The trick is to fly in as slow as possible with some power and some flaps and as the wheels touch the ground, rotate the airplane into the runway centerline, get rid of flaps and power, push the nose down and apply the brakes.

Wow! it worked, not even a bounce.


I slowly taxied up to the instructor, he opened the door and got in.

Didn’t say a word, just sat there. The engine just kicking over in a slow idle  …………  …………..  ……….  ………….  …………  ………..  ……….  ……….  ……….  ……….  ……….

er, How did I do?

“Well,” he says, “You took off just fine, flew a nice square pattern, lined up a clean glide slope, flared out to land, just then that cross wind hit you. Off the runway you went into the elephant grass.  I was sure that I would have to walk back to the base, through 20 miles of jungle and explain to the base executive officer how I lost a pilot and plane.

You got it flying again! As you went by I figured you would just fly back to the base and land. This was not so bad, I would just have to hike those 20 miles back to the base and explain why my pilot came home alone.

Then, you went back into the pattern and tried to land into that cross wind. Again, I was sure that I would have to hike back to the base and explain how I lost a plane and pilot. And you landed it just like you knew what you were doing.”

“I will sign off on your logbook, you are cleared to fly solo!”

After that, an airplane just felt like an extension of me. Flying was as natural as walking or riding a bike.  😎   pg

Senate votes to ban taxes on internet

Senate votes to permanently ban taxes on internet services

By Jon Martindale — February 12, 2016

Running in line with some people’s thinking that Internet access should be a basic right, the U.S. Senate has voted to ban taxes levied on Internet access from ever being enacted. Known as the Permanent Internet Tax Freedom Act, it replaces and extends an already existing 18-year ban on Internet-related taxes that came to an end in October last year.
Although Internet access is a major component of the legislation, it also covers other aspects of the Internet. It prevents, for example, anyone from levying taxes that could target Internet-based services which are not otherwise available.
Several organizations have praised the legislation, with the Council for Citizens Against Government Waste in particular voicing its approval. It called it a “taxpayer victory,” suggesting that it would help prevent overbearing charges placed unfairly on consumers (as per PCWorld).
Read more:

California, Drought or poor management

Victor Davis Hanson
The Scorching of California
How Green extremists made a bad drought worse
Winter 2015

The drought has threatened to turn large tracts of farmland into dust.

In mid-December, the first large storms in three years drenched California. No one knows whether the rain and snow will continue—only that it must last for weeks if a record three-year drought, both natural and man-made, is to end. In the 1970s, coastal elites squelched California’s near-century-long commitment to building dams, reservoirs, and canals, even as the Golden State’s population ballooned. Court-ordered drainage of man-made lakes, meant to restore fish to the 1,100-square-mile Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, partly caused central California’s reservoir water to dry up. Not content with preventing construction of new water infrastructure, environmentalists reverse-engineered existing projects to divert precious water away from agriculture, privileging the needs of fish over the needs of people. Then they alleged that global warming, not their own foolish policies, had caused the current crisis.    For the rest of the article


Very good but long read for the history of the present California water shortages.

Our main problem is politically directed bad management and not an unprecedented water shortage. California historically is very wet or very dry and the paradise that people here expect to enjoy is the creation of man and not god. The natural California is one of swamp or desert often in the same place during the same year.

Lake Sacramento the book pdf. History of the major floods 1700s though 1900s in the Central Valley.

Friends of Governor Brown plan to create two new cities in the south state, connected by the fast rail line. They need water for those cities and are establishing the legal system to take that water from Central Valley farmers that own those rights.
Follow the money! And the taxpayers of the state will PAY vast billions into the pockets of these developers.
Ecoloons and Federal Judges are just convenient tools…pg