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about things that interest me.

Category Archives: experiment

Magnetic Graphene

Researchers Make Magnetic Graphene
UC Riverside research could lead to new multi-functional electronic devices
By Iqbal Pittalwala on January 26, 2015

Graphene is a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. UC Riverside physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. Image credit: Shi Lab, UC Riverside.

Graphene is a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. UC Riverside physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. Image credit: Shi Lab, UC Riverside.

RIVERSIDE, Calif. – Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has many desirable properties. Magnetism alas is not one of them. Magnetism can be induced in graphene by doping it with magnetic impurities, but this doping tends to disrupt graphene’s electronic properties.
Now a team of physicists at the University of California, Riverside has found an ingenious way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. They have accomplished this by bringing a graphene sheet very close to a magnetic insulator – an electrical insulator with magnetic properties.
“This is the first time that graphene has been made magnetic this way,” said Jing Shi, a professor of physics and astronomy, whose lab led the research. “The magnetic graphene acquires new electronic properties so that new quantum phenomena can arise. These properties can lead to new electronic devices that are more robust and multi-functional.”
The finding has the potential to increase graphene’s use in computers, as in computer chips that use electronic spin to store data.
Study results appeared online earlier this month in Physical Review Letters.
The magnetic insulator Shi and his team used was yttrium iron garnet grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy in his lab. The researchers placed a single-layer graphene sheet on an atomically smooth layer of yttrium iron garnet. They found that yttrium iron garnet magnetized the graphene sheet. In other words, graphene simply borrows the magnetic properties from yttrium iron garnet.
Magnetic substances like iron tend to interfere with graphene’s electrical conduction. The researchers avoided those substances and chose yttrium iron garnet because they knew it worked as an electric insulator, which meant that it would not disrupt graphene’s electrical transport properties. By not doping the graphene sheet but simply placing it on the layer of yttrium iron garnet, they ensured that graphene’s excellent electrical transport properties remained unchanged.
In their experiments, Shi and his team exposed the graphene to an external magnetic field.  They found that graphene’s Hall voltage – a voltage in the perpendicular direction to the current flow – depended linearly on the magnetization of yttrium iron garnet (a phenomenon known as the anomalous Hall effect, seen in magnetic materials like iron and cobalt).  This confirmed that their graphene sheet had turned magnetic.
Shi was joined in the study by UC Riverside’s Zhiyong Wang (first author of the research paper), Chi Tang, Raymond Sachs and Yafis Barlas.
Grants to Shi and his team members from the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation supported the research.

Search for Gravitational Waves

 

Science Powerhouses Unite to Help Search for Gravitational Waves

Scientists since Albert Einstein have believed that when major galactic events like supernova explosions or black hole mergers occur in the universe, they leave a trace. That trace, it is believed, takes the form of gravitational waves, ripples in the curvature of space-time that propagate as a wave, travelling outward from the source.

For over a decade, scientists and engineers have engaged in one of the most ambitious research efforts ever undertaken: to design, build and operate the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) to identify signs of gravitational waves.

From 2002 to 2010, hundreds of scientists worked together to bring the experiment to life. It required two gravitational wave observatories, 1,865 miles apart, working in unison: the LIGO Livingston Observatory in Livingston, Louisiana, and the LIGO Hanford Observatory, located near Richland, Washington. LIGO was developed and is managed by Caltech and MIT, and is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

For more of article:

NO JOY

Shell condenser   Testing brings no joy.

It appears that I have a major error in the coil lay out design.

The outer ring of the disk seems to be a short in the field that limits the rim to 485vac instead of the 80,000 that I was aiming for. The design of the coils was for a 600 volt per turn field. 485 volts is about right for the coils fully loaded sag.

 

Original_Tesla_Coil

*  *  *  *

Tesla remarked in his “Boulder Colorado Notes” that with air coils, any 3rd coil aligned with and within the influance of the primary field would react with the same per turn voltage as the primary.

Note that this drawing of Tesla’s transmitter, the top toroid is covered with dimples. In the Wycliffe design the dome was covered with “scales” that did not touch but were connected in a star pattern at the center of each panel to prevent current circulation.

*   *   *   *   *

 

Pictorial schematic 03

Guess I should have paid better attention.

My present layout has all the power coils in axial alignment with the disk.  The skin of the disk acts as a short.

The naked main coil would light up florescent tubes 3 feet away.  The unpainted Disk over the coil limited the tubes lighting up to about 6 inches. The metal paint seems to be preventing enough radiation to cause any light up of the tubes. To solve this problem all the coils will be removed and used remotely for testing while a new coil system is designed.

A poly phase coil driver set is contemplated.  Most likely star configured and laid out axially between the frames 90 degrees from the disk axis.  pg

 

Impossible EM Thruster

An interesting “TOY” I stumbled on.  Reminds me of a device that T.Townsend Brown described in the late 1920s. His was a HV dc charged Crooks tube that moved in the direction of the positive charge during charging. Also described in a paper by Biefeld&Brown. pg

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NASA confirms ‘impossible’ thruster actually works, could revolutionize space travel
By Drew Prindle — August 1, 2014

Shawyer EM Drive test device

Shawyer EM Drive test device

When Roger Shawyer first unveiled his EmDrive thruster back around 2003, the scientific community laughed at him. They said it was impossible, that it was based on a flawed concept, and couldn’t work because it goes against the laws of conservation of momentum. But somehow, despite all of the reasons it shouldn’t work, it does. Shawyer’s engine provides thrust by “bouncing microwaves around in a closed chamber.” That’s it. There’s no need for a propellant of any kind like rocket fuel. When filled with resonating microwaves, the conical chamber of the thruster experiences a net thrust toward the wide end. These microwaves can be generated using electricity, which can be provided by solar energy. In theory, this means that the thruster can work forever, or at least until its hardware fails. Initially, the idea was met with criticism because it flies in the face of Newtonian physics, which dictate that no closed system can have this kind of net thrust. Shawyer, however, says that net thrust occurs because the microwaves have a group velocity that’s greater in one direction when Einstein’s relativity comes into play. But can it really? Apparently, yes. The idea was by a group of Chinese scientists back in 2009. They built their own version of Shawyer’s thruster and were able to produce 720 mili newtons of force — but even then, nobody really believed it.
Scientists at NASA just confirmed it;
Abstract: This paper describes the eight-day August 2013 test campaign designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasma dynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micro newton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the “null” test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities. Publication Date: Jul 28, 2014 propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the “null” test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities. Jul 28, 2014

Now, American scientists at NASA have given the EmDrive a go, and once again confirmed that it actually works. The test results were presented on July 30 at the 50th Joint Propulsion Conference in Cleveland, Ohio, and astonishingly enough, they are positive. The team behind the drive still doesn’t know why it works, just that it does……………By Drew Prindle — August 1, 2014

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Theory    EM Drive home site.
Principle of Operation
At first sight the idea of propulsion without propellant seems impossible. However the technology is firmly anchored in the basic laws of physics and following an extensive review process, no transgressions of these laws have been identified.
The principle of operation is based on the well-known phenomenon of radiation pressure. This relies on Newton’s Second Law where force is defined as the rate of change of momentum. Thus an electromagnetic (EM) wave, travelling at the speed of light has a certain momentum which it will transfer to a reflector, resulting in a tiny force.
If the same EM wave is travelling at a fraction of the speed of light, the rate of change of momentum, and hence force, is reduced by that fraction. The propagation velocity of an EM wave, and the resulting force it exerts, can be varied depending on the geometry of a waveguide within which it travels. This was demonstrated by work carried out in the 1950’s. (CULLEN, A.L. ‘Absolute Power Measurements at Microwave Frequencies’ IEE Proceedings Vol 99 Part 1V 1952 P.100)
Thus if the EM wave travelling in a tapered waveguide is bounced between two reflectors, with a large velocity difference at the reflector surfaces, the force difference will give a resultant thrust to the waveguide linking the two reflectors. If the reflectors are separated by a multiple of half the effective wavelength of the EM wave, this thrust will be multiplied by the Q of the resulting resonant cavity, as illustrated in fig 1 below.

Shawyer EM drive figure 01

Shawyer EM drive figure 1

Fig 1. Diagram of an engine concept.
The inevitable objection raised, is that the apparently closed system produced by this arrangement cannot result in an output force, but will merely produce strain within the waveguide walls. However, this ignores Einstein’s Special Law of Relativity in which separate frames of reference have to be applied at velocities approaching the speed of light. Thus the system of EM wave and waveguide can be regarded as an open system, with the EM wave and the waveguide having separate frames of reference.
A similar approach is necessary to explain the principle of the laser gyroscope, where open system attitude information is obtained from an apparently closed system device.

Anomaly ???

Strange Anomaly discovered.

masked for metal skin  The second layer of metal paint is drying on the masked finished disk and I have a puzzle.  While sanding the first layer I looked down at the supporting legs and noticed that the one below me was displaced, strange, I know that they were centered.

So I examined the others.

  xxx

#2 leg door way

  xxx

This is the #2 leg, in the door way.

Note the leg is centered on the 4inch square on the plank. Ignore the scrap shim just under the leg. It was added to level the disk

#1 leg  xxx

  xxx

This is the #1 leg to the rear left in the top picture. The leg is displaced 1 inch clockwise from the center of the 4inch square . I even tried to move the disk by pushing and tugging it.  this thing is heavy and sits solid.

#3 leg  xxx

  xxx

This is #3 leg front left in picture. Also displaced 1inch clockwise from center of pad.

We have had severer thunder storms over the last week. One was less then 1 second away.

  xxxx

I’ve been trying to ignore this for the past 2 days.  Then decided that I should publish this note.  Just for the record,  as I am sure that all three legs were centered on their pads.  Now I will recenter them.   pg

Condenser Disk

Condenser disk

Condenser disk primed for paint

Condenser disk primed for paint

The golden disk is no more. The rough surface of polyester and aluminum foil has been sanded and coated.

The disk is now smooth and primed.  The 4 legs supporting the frame have been removed and replaced with 3 supports under the the disk rim. The old  legs were distorting the disk, over the legs, as the frame was too lightly made for the weight of completed disk. The new supports are under the strongest part of the disk rim and spread the weight. after several months without the legs and the application of heat the distortion went away and I was able to finish the surface.

PG with his Chief Engineer!  er pest, Samurai.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After 20 pounds of Bondo and 2 gallons of primer have been applied and sanded down the dish is as smooth and true as I can get it. Next apply the surface layer. At present I lean toward metal paint, heavy laid and sanded smooth.  I tried a Stainless Steel spray paint on the disk cap.  That appears to work, it is tough and it conducts.  As it is Nickel-Chrome it should help with the Hall effect needed to manage the EMF fields,  not sure about leakage from the grains exposed edges. At least application design control should be easier. Just mask and shoot.  pg

Shell condenser

Smoke Test!

Circuit Smoke Test!

I could no longer stand it. Time to apply power and test the circuits.

Things were put away well enough and the floor cleaned. Other work caught up, So I hooked up the power supply and turned on the switch. The spark gap hissed nicely and there were no loud noises. I took out an old florescent tub, turned off the lights and  examined the fields. Emm……….. kind of weak. Turned things off after 10 minutes and had a late lunch.

Later in the evening, turned the lights off. Now dark and tested again. Discovered illumination inside the disk. After some crawling around found an arc, a short between the back of the pin cushion and the shell coil ground wire. Almost the center of everything, Damn! now I must take things apart and reroute a wire and seal the old route.

At least this design can be taken apart and changed.  pg

Hurrah! The Experiment is in it’s new home.

Condenser Disk on shop deck

Condenser Disk on shop deck

 

 

 

The disk has moved or at least we moved it!

Yesterday afternoon the deck/ceiling of the warehouse/shop was sufficiently completed and I had  5 strong men, me included, available. We moved the experiment to it’s new home.  FINALLY!  Still creating walls within the timber framing and it needs a roof. Maybe tarps this year and a real roof next year.  At least, now the disk has a home where I can work on finishing it and set up testing mounts. Below the deck is a warehouse dug into the hillside. The front wall, seen here. is masonry, 10 feet down into bedrock with the backside wall at ground level. more on this later.  pg

 

 

 

Upper Disk 2

Getting the form Right

Raw FRP shell

Raw FRP shell condenser shell form

shell form

Condenser shell form

I April 2012

The raw FRP ( Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester) shell form needs to be repaired and trued before the actual condenser can be created on it. Due to working alone there are starved areas in the FRP where there is not enough polyester resin to float the fiberglass. These white streaks are weak areas and need to be ground out and refilled with FRP before the shell can be built up and trued. There are many high areas that must be ground down to a minimum thickness and all other areas built up to obtain a smooth and true curve with little or no ripple under the capacitance foils.

After the minimum thickness is true and strong and stable, the low areas that remain can be filled with resin fillers and further trued. It took most of 6 weeks to get to this point. Now the edge must be trued to the center point so the curvatures are even and smooth.

Electron fields concentrate at points of sharpest curvature and we want the fields to maximize at the disk edge with the least loss. The more true and smooth this surface is the better the quality of the capacitance layers to be created on it.  Any high areas can result in thin dielectric and possible failure. Any low areas will result in loss in capacitance.

marking the shell form

marking the shell form for truing

To obtain a true edge a wire is connected to the top center point and used to draw concentric circles that are tested with the template that is a cut and marked piece of heavy corrugated card board. The use of this shows the areas that need to be ground down or built up to achieve a true shape. After nearly 3 gallons of filler the surface is very true. Now layers of polyester resin are applied and sanded to create a smooth surface, each more smooth and true then the last.  Now I need to clean the work area as everything is covered with a thick layer of polyester dust.  😥

Now to add the coils

The great coil and plasma jet in place

The 130 turn spiral wound high voltage coil has been cut out of the old device and mounted under the disk frame with the plasma jet pointed down.

The black coil around the spiral coil is the 24 turn  primary coil,  and the white coil above it is the bundle of driver coils for the twitch coils.

Inside of the central frame cage is the shell field driver coil that is connected to the groundplain in the rim and to the surface field cap on top of the coil and the outer skin of the shell.

Coils

Center coils inside disk

The shell field coil is induction driven 165 turns of 12ga tw covered wire and should create a 100,000 volt field on the shell capacitance due to the 600+ volt per turn field strength.

The shell field coil and twitch coils are loosely coupled to the main field and are jointly connected to the groundplain to make their operation independent of any back EMF from the spiral coil and primary driver that are connected together as an autocoil.

The primary and spiral coils should drive the plasma jet pincushion to about 100,000 volts.  At some time the primary coil can also be connected to the groundplain if needed for testing.

Twitch coils in place in disk edge

The primary coil is a bundle of 24 turns of stranded 12ga THWH inside polyethylene tubing and is powered by the 15,000 volt spark gap set. This should set up a 600+volt per turn field inside of all the coils

The twitch coils are mounted and connected to the groundplain.  2 turns per twitch coil are bundled into the white twitch coil driver necklace above the primary coil to independently provide 1200 volts to each twitch coil LC set. The twitch coils are 90 degrees to the other coils so are nearly independent of the main field.

FRP shell with cap in place

Every other segment is connected to the groundplain and bottom of the shell field coil. A coil/shell cap with carbon fiber whip has been created and covered with aluminum foil to act as the connection from the top of the field coil to the shells’ upper aluminum covering. The upper third needs to be trued by grinding and filling to the finished level as I prepare  to apply the inter condenser copper foil.

x

Construction of the Actual Shell Condenser

Inter Layer of copper foil

 

The FRP shell is ready for the addition of the copper foil segments that act as the inter layer of the shell condenser. Each segment connects to one side of the twitch coil behind it

Next, add the shell condenser  copper foil inter layer on the shell form. After several attempts I have found a way to apply a satisfactory copper foil layer to the form.

WOW!  This is starting to look impressive! If nothing else this is a work of Art or at least of PG.   😎    When the outer shell is finished this will be stunning! even if it doesn’t move.

The blue level is tape to hold the foil segments against the wires from the interior circuits. This is removed as I create the outer edge.

Outer edge formed

The outer edge form is done .

x

x

x

Fiberglass gores in place on shell

The outer edge shape is done and I am ready to build up the FRP shell over the inter condenser foil level. The Resin needed is on hand and the fiberglass mat is on its’ way. Hurrah! the end is in sight.

The Fiberglass mat has arrived and is being applied. Gores of mat are cut and taped in place with a slight overlap, then catalyst treated resin is poured on and rolled into the mat until the glass “floats” and air bubbles are eliminated. Fast work is necessary to complete the fill all the way around before the resin sets. To successfully make this, by myself, it is done in 3 layers. Each layer of mat requires the application of 3 and a half gallons of treated resin.

finished shell with aluminum skin

The shell shape is complete and covered with aluminum foil gilding.

A few coats of polyester and sand it smooth.

I just, have to, smoke test this!! Chase a few electrons around and around! light up some old florescent tubes.

It has been nearly 20 years since I energized the great coil

27 February 2013

Golden Shell Condenser

Polyester coated Shell condenser outside the hanger area.

The polyester coated shell is well cured and has been moved outside the hanger area. Now I have a lot more room to work and I have the greenhouse back  😎 for early spring grow out.

NOTE: Be sure to click on the pictures for a better view and more information in comments.  pg

Next see Condenser Disk and  Hurrah!

Primary driver

Primary Coil Driver

Primary Coil Driver

Primary Coil Driver

The primary coil driver set is assembled and ready to go. Left to right, Ganged condenser to drive the primary coil, spark gap attached to aluminum heat sink, chokes for suppression of back EMF to protect the neon transformer and most important part an OFF switch! see spark gap condenser test

The yellow wire is high tension ignition wire. This will allow me to operate the power supply 20 feet remotely from the very high voltage coils and any fields generated on the surface of the disk.

Primary Driver top view

 Driver set top view

When a neon transformer is used it must be protected from the possibility of a high energy kick back from the magnetic collapse of the field in the secondary coil.  A properly sized choke will easily pass current at the 60 cycle frequency of the transformer but strongly resist current at the high frequency of the primary LC  circuit of about 18,000hz.The frequency of the LC tank circuit (inductance/capacitance) of the primary is caused by the charge / discharge of the capacitor through the spark gap and the coil.

side view of primary coil driver

side view of primary coil driver

Driver set side view

The spark gap is to force the charge voltage from the transformer to rise to the break down point of the gap,  current in the circuit has inertia so it will over discharge the capacitance and cause the current to reverse flow. This back and forth flow will continue until the voltage in the circuit is too low to cross the gap. If the circuit is designed correctly the gap will break down early enough in the 60 cycle to bridge the time that the transformer has low voltage from its’ 60 cycle output. This is electronics on a massive scale.

be sure to click on the pictures for more information in the picture comments.  pg