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Category Archives: space flight

Discovery of Gravity Waves?

Febuary 11 2016  LIGO   cal.tech

LIGO announces discovery of gravity waves.  pdf

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES DETECTED 100 YEARS AFTER EINSTEIN’S PREDICTION    https://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/gravity-wave-space.jpg?w=720&h=443

 A pictorial representation of gravity waves in the fabric of space caused by 2 black holes spiraling together

Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory:

For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.
The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory
(LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA.
The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT. The discovery, accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters, was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
The twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors,

https://i1.wp.com/ligo.org/science/GW-Overview/images/LHO_tn.jpg

Aerial view of the LIGO detector in Hanford, WA. [Image: LIGO] – See more at: http://ligo.org/science/GW-Detecting.php#sthash.vwdtW7Hp.dpuf
Basic Design of the LIGO Interferometer
Layout of the LIGO Interferometer that measures the warpage of the earth as the force passes through the material of the planet. Lasers measure the differences in distance between the detectors as the earth is effected by the passing wave. The use of two observatories revels the direction of the point of origin.
At each observatory, the two-and-a-half-mile (4-km) long L-shaped LIGO interferometer uses laser light split into two beams that travel back and forth down the arms (four-foot diameter tubes kept under a near-perfect vacuum). The beams are used to monitor the distance between mirrors precisely positioned at the ends of the arms. According to Einstein’s theory, the distance between the mirrors will change by an infinitesimal amount when a gravitational wave passes by the detector. A change in the lengths of the arms smaller than one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton, (10 to the-19) meter, can be detected.
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Now that I have the experiment information down I can make my own remarks. A good follow up article on the experiment and it’s equipment.

The detection of gravitational waves – a triumph of science enabled by fossil fuels

It is wonderful that real experiments are carried out and reported on. But I reserve the right to infer my own conclusions from the results…pg

Another Planet?

 Another ninth planet

planet-nine-160120b-02

On Jan. 20, scientists announced that a planet about 10 times more massive than Earth likely lurks in the distant outer solar system, orbiting perhaps 600 times farther from the sun than Earth does on average.

The evidence for the existence of this “Planet Nine” is indirect at the moment; computer models suggest a big, undiscovered world has shaped the strange orbits of multiple objects in the Kuiper Belt, the ring of icy bodies beyond Neptune. But direct evidence could come relatively soon, in the form of a telescope observation, Planet Nine’s proposers say.

Scientists believe they may have found a giant planet in our distant solar system, possibly the long-sought after Planet X.

It is believed to have a mass about 10 times that of Earth and orbits about 20 times farther from the Sun on average than does Neptune. As a result, it would take this new planet between 10,000 and 20,000 years to make just one full orbit around the Sun.

This may or may not be the giant planet that the Ancients speak of. One that orbits as close to the sun as the asteroid belt and then out again for 3600 years. This one is not a part of the 8 planet elliptical group, but orbits above and below the solar elliptic nearly 90 degrees.

At this point this is just an educated guess on where to look and what to expect.

The better our tools, the more we can surmise and see…pg

For the full article

Aether or Quanta ?

 

Aether has been in favor and out, for hundreds of years. About 100 years at a time for or against.  As we progress into the 21st century, once more it progresses back into consideration. In the early days of the study of electrical /electronic phenomenon it was posited that the propagation of Electro-Motive Force or EMF required a medium, Aether or ether,  for the radiation waves to effect and travel in. Maxwell proposed that light is an undulation in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. At the end of the 19th century Quantum particles became the latest thing as new atomic energy theories were promulgated. At the same time, a definitive experiment was conducted with much fanfare to prove the existence and flow of Aether as the Earth traveled in its’ orbit. The experiment failed to find any proof of Aether existence. This was declared by proponents of Quantum Physics that theirs’ was the only way and that Aether DID NOT EXIST! They claimed that they had no need for Aether to calculate their physics but their formulas all included “fudge factors” constants that supplant for that need.

In my opinion the failure was due to an incorrect understanding of fluid dynamics involved and gravitational effects of the Earth, Sun and the Solar System traveling within this medium. A number of later experiments detected indications of the existence of “Something” where there should be nothing. Astrophysicists of the last of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st have determined that over 84% of the apparent mass of the Universe can not be accounted for within the visible and projected not visible matter that makes up the Universe. Where is this mass hidden? What is this hidden mass? So called Dark matter or dark mass, what is it? Along with Dark Energy, these things constitute over 95% of the total constituents of the Universe. This thing that we do not detect but can only infer from the the behavior of things that we can observe.

Much like Einstein, I began my investigation into mass/inertia and gravity with light. How does light travel through space? How can light travel through Trillions of miles of space without change or loss of speed? How can this thing exhibit characteristics of both wave and particle? And just how can it exhibit one speed only, regardless of the speed and direction of its’ creation and detection. What is this thing, wave or particle? To the good, I do have an additional 100 years of scientific research to draw on during my examinations.

The model that I have come up with is that Aether is charge bubbles in chaos. As long as that charge is in chaos there is no signature to detect. That chaos is aligned or organized under EMF influence. While organized there is an EMF field that can be detected, That EMF travels in/on the highly compressed minute charge bubbles of the Aether. Research claimed that the speed of light travel through the vacuum of space as if were in an atmosphere compressed to 10,000psi. Remember charge pushes, repels charge.

Quanta energy transfer ; electrons, photons, neutrinos are just energy information traveling through these bubbles. Every EMF action causes an equal and opposite reaction from the neighboring bubbles, a perfect elastic that tends to concentrate the energy to the center of its’ path. If you drain that energy with a detection you “see” a particle that behaves as if it were a wave, but really only the energy is delivered. So if you had an Electron or Photon in your hand it actually would be a charge bubble or Quanta of charge that has a particular charge signature. All detection requires a Quanta of energy to create a signal in the detector because that is how much is required to make a valance change in an atom in the detector. We “see” particles because we “see” units of energy. Without a Quanta of energy there is no signal of detection. Imagine if you will, a long rod of copper or glass, wire or fiber. If you poke a quanta of energy into one end, a quanta of energy must jump out at the other end. This is because the electronic stress within the conductor must maintain balance. The energy information is transferred not a particle. The quanta that jumped out of the conductor is not the one that went in. That movement of energy information moves at the conduction speed of that material.
Electrons, photons, neutrinos, etc. are all Aether with different electronic signatures caused by differences in the 3 dimensions of charge in motion.

Mass/inertia of matter is an external effect in the Aether caused by the internal low or lack of charge of protons and high charge of electron shells. The charge of Aether and the resistance of change in retaliative motion of charges in the Aether. Charge in motion resists changes in its’ velocity, strength, in all 3 dimensions. Just like mass/inertia of matter. They are interchangeable.

Gravity is caused by the difference of charge between Aether and Matter. These causes a linear warpage in the atomic dielectric or position of the nucleus within the Electron shell or atomic surface of matter.  This electronic linear deflection of the atomic center of gravity is the cause of the apparent acceleration of Gravity caused by the matter attempting to center its’ mass within its’ physical shell….pg

New US space mining law

Will the New US space mining law spark interplanetary gold rush?
December 8, 2015 by Luc Oling
A new US law legalizes the extraction of minerals and other materials, including water,

In a first, President Barack Obama signed legislation at the end of November that allows commercial extraction of minerals and other materials, including water, from asteroids and the moon.

The US Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act of 2015 says that any materials American individuals or companies find on an asteroid or the moon is theirs to keep and do with as they please. That could kick off an extraterrestrial gold rush, backed by a private aeronautics industry that is growing quickly and cutting the price of commercial space flight. While the Space Act breaks with the concept that space should be shared by everyone on Earth for scientific research and exploration, it establishes the rights of investors to profit from their efforts, at least under US law.

Christopher Johnson, a lawyer at the Secure World Foundation, which focuses on the long-term sustainable use of outer space, said the law sets the basis for the next century of activity in space.
“Now it is permissible to interact with space. Exploring and using space’s resources has begun,” he said.

The US move conjured visions of the great opening of the United States’ Western frontier in the 19th century, which led to the California Gold Rush of 1849. But for the moment, the costs of pioneering the economic exploitation of space remain exorbitant and the risks high.

Large companies are still studying their options, but smaller startups are impatient to get going, like Planetary Resources, launched in 2012 by Google co-founder Larry Page. Water particles have been detected on the surface of the Moon by three missions, including an Indian probe. “It has often been a question as to whether a commercial company will be able to go out and develop a resource,” said Chris Lewicki, president of Planetary Resources, which bills itself as “The Asteroid Mining Company.”
But now, the Space Act “allows us to give assurances to our customers and investors as we build a resource business in space,” Lewicki told AFP. “Since the passage of the law, we’ve been getting a lot of support messages and our current investors are very excited,” he added. Meagan Crawford, vice president at another ambitious asteroid miner, Deep Space Industries, said that with the law’s passage investors are no longer fretting that they are wasting their money. “This is absolutely a big win for us. We don’t seem crazy any more. We don’t have to work very hard to convince investors.”

According to NASA research, of some 1,500 asteroids within easy reach from Earth, possibly 10 percent have valuable mineral resources. Both companies see great possibilities in space: deposits of nickel, iron ore, gold and platinum that could support the space industry in the same way that the huge deposits of iron ore in the US upper Midwest laid the foundations for the Detroit auto industry. But their first target is water frozen in substantial deposits on relatively close asteroids. The water’s value, more than just to drink, is in providing hydrogen fuel for space vehicles. It could supply a refueling station for the rockets, for instance, destined to explore Mars. And it could be used to refuel satellites in orbit.

The Arkyd Seris I satellite created by Planetary Resources, which was established in 2012 to mine asteroids. Lewicki says an in-space fueling station could save hundreds of millions of dollars in water transport costs. “If we can store that water there, we can refuel rockets, satellites—it will be a huge opportunity. “You can refuel your rocket in orbit; that makes it easier to get it there, and cheaper. “The first space prospecting missions could be launched from 2017, the companies say, and extracting minerals could begin as early as 2020. For its part Planetary Resources has already identified asteroids for exploitation using space telescopes place in orbit last year. It plans to launch a small exploration satellite early next year, Lewicki said.

Deep Space Industries is planning the deployment of 25-32 kilogram (55-70 pound) mini-satellites to asteroids with good prospects to better assess their resources and bring back samples.
The two companies estimate that the new space gold rush could need around $3 trillion dollars over the next 10-15 years. For that, they need global support for their operations, and need to begin pressing other governments to adopt laws similar to the US Space Act that will recognize a company’s rights to any space mineral riches it can harvest.

Cal Tech/JPL proposes dark matter hair

This artist's rendering zooms in on what dark matter "hairs" might look like around Earth
This artist’s rendering zooms in on what dark matter “hairs” might look like around Earth.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech
This artist's rendering zooms in on what dark matter "hairs" might look like around Earth
The root of a dark matter hair produced from particles going through Jupiter’s core would be about 1 trillion times denser than average.

The solar system might be a lot hairier than we thought.

A new study publishing this week in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, proposes the existence of long filaments of dark matter, or “hairs.”

Dark matter is an invisible, mysterious substance that makes up about 27 percent of all matter and energy in the universe. The regular matter, which makes up everything we can see around us, is only 5 percent of the universe. The rest is dark energy, a strange phenomenon associated with the acceleration of our expanding universe.

Neither dark matter nor dark energy has ever been directly detected, although many experiments are trying to unlock the mysteries of dark matter, whether from deep underground or in space.

Based on many observations of its gravitational pull in action, scientists are certain that dark matter exists, and have measured how much of it there is in the universe to an accuracy of better than one percent. The leading theory is that dark matter is “cold,” meaning it doesn’t move around much, and it is “dark” insofar as it doesn’t produce or interact with light.

Galaxies, which contain stars made of ordinary matter, form because of fluctuations in the density of dark matter. Gravity acts as the glue that holds both the ordinary and dark matter together in galaxies.

According to calculations done in the 1990s and simulations performed in the last decade, dark matter forms “fine-grained streams” of particles that move at the same velocity and orbit galaxies such as ours.

“A stream can be much larger than the solar system itself, and there are many different streams crisscrossing our galactic neighborhood,” Prézeau said.

Prézeau likens the formation of fine-grained streams of dark matter to mixing chocolate and vanilla ice cream. Swirl a scoop of each together a few times and you get a mixed pattern, but you can still see the individual colors.

“When gravity interacts with the cold dark matter gas during galaxy formation, all particles within a stream continue traveling at the same velocity,” Prézeau said.

But what happens when one of these streams approaches a planet such as Earth? Prézeau used computer simulations to find out.

His analysis finds that when a dark matter stream goes through a planet, the stream particles focus into an ultra-dense filament, or “hair,” of dark matter. In fact, there should be many such hairs sprouting from Earth.

A stream of ordinary matter would not go through Earth and out the other side. But from the point of view of dark matter, Earth is no obstacle.  According to Prézeau’s simulations, Earth’s gravity would focus and bend the stream of dark matter particles into a narrow, dense hair.

Hairs emerging from planets have both “roots,” the densest concentration of dark matter particles in the hair, and “tips,” where the hair ends. When particles of a dark matter stream pass through Earth’s core, they focus at the “root” of a hair, where the density of the particles is about a billion times more than average. The root of such a hair should be around 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) away from the surface, or twice as far as the moon. The stream particles that graze Earth’s surface will form the tip of the hair, about twice as far from Earth as the hair’s root.

“If we could pinpoint the location of the root of these hairs, we could potentially send a probe there and get a bonanza of data about dark matter,” Prézeau said.

A stream passing through Jupiter’s core would produce even denser roots: almost 1 trillion times denser than the original stream, according to Prézeau’s simulations.

“Dark matter has eluded all attempts at direct detection for over 30 years. The roots of dark matter hairs would be an attractive place to look, given how dense they are thought to be,” said Charles Lawrence, chief scientist for JPL’s astronomy, physics and technology directorate.

Another fascinating finding from these computer simulations is that the changes in density found inside our planet – from the inner core, to the outer core, to the mantle to the crust – would be reflected in the hairs. The hairs would have “kinks” in them that correspond to the transitions between the different layers of Earth.

Theoretically, if it were possible to obtain this information, scientists could use hairs of cold dark matter to map out the layers of any planetary body, and even infer the depths of oceans on icy moons.

Further study is needed to support these findings and unlock the mysteries of the nature of dark matter.

The California Institute of Technology manages JPL for NASA.

Elizabeth Landau
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6425
Elizabeth.Landau@jpl.nasa.gov

2015-354

Is a Warp Drive possible

My son pointed me to this article at dailygalaxy.com about the latest thoughts of researchers about the possiblity of Faster then Light Travel space flight. True space flight will require FLT for several reasons, the main one being Space is a Very very large place. Rocket propulsion just won’t do. Too expensive, too slow, too dangerous.  Only Electro-motive-Force can be the long term solution. An EMF drive can also result in a warp bubble in the stuff of space or Aether that can continually be accelerated as it is not a part of Normal Space.

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“Routine travel among the stars is impossible without new discoveries regarding the fabric of space and time, or capability to manipulate it for our needs,” says Neil deGrasse Tyson, the “Cosmos famous” astrophysicist at the American Museum of Natural History, said “By my read, the idea of a functioning warp drive remains far-fetched, but the real take-away is that people are thinking about it — reminding us all that the urge to explore continues to run deep in our species.”

There have been hints in recent news that NASA may be on the path to discovering warp bubbles that could make the local universe accessible for human exploration. NASA scientists may be close announcing they may have broken the speed of light. According to state-of-the art theory, a warp drive could cut the travel time between stars from tens of thousands of years to weeks or months.The catalyst for the trending warp-drive excitement is the Electromagnetic Drive or EM Drive, a thruster that was engineered to steer rockets which eliminates the use of a propellant originally intended for moon missions, Mars missions and low-Earth orbit (LEO) operations.

The experiment that led to the possibility of faster than light interstellar travel took place in the vacuum of space. According to posts on NASASpaceFlight.com, a website devoted to the engineering side of space news, when lasers were fired through the EmDrive’s resonance chamber, some of the beams appeared to travel faster than the speed of light. If that’s true, it would mean that the EmDrive is producing a warp field or bubble. 

But “How?” If the laser beams are moving faster than the speed of light, then it would indicate that they are creating some sort of warp field, or bubble in the space-time foam, which in turn produces the thrust that could, in theory, power a spaceship bound for the center of the Milky Way or one of its dwarf galaxy satellites.

The bubble would contract space-time in front of the ship, flow over the ship, then expand back to normality behind it. It’s inaccurate to describe the spaceship as moving faster than the speed of light, but rather space-time is moving around the ship faster than the speed of light.

Harold G. White, a physicist and advanced propulsion engineer at NASA and other NASA engineers are trying to determine whether faster-than-light travel — warp drive — might someday be possible. The team has attempting to slightly warp the trajectory of a photon, changing the distance it travels in a certain area, and then observing the change with a device called an interferometer.

“Space has been expanding since the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago,” said Dr. White, 43, who runs the research project told the New York Times. “And we know that when you look at some of the cosmology models, there were early periods of the universe where there was explosive inflation, where two points would’ve went receding away from each other at very rapid speeds. Nature can do it,” he added. “So the question is, can we do it?”

In 1994, a Mexican physicist, Miguel Alcubierre, theorized that faster-than-light speeds were possible in a way that did not contradict Einstein by harnessing the expansion and contraction of space itself. Under Dr. Alcubierre’s hypothesis, a ship still couldn’t exceed light speed in a local region of space. But a theoretical propulsion system he sketched out manipulated space-time by generating a so-called “warp bubble” that would expand space on one side of a spacecraft and contract it on another.

An Alcubierre Warp Drive stretches spacetime in a wave causing the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship can ride the wave to accelerate to high speeds and time travel. The Alcubierre drive, also known as the Alcubierre metric or Warp Drive, is a mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional “warp drive” from Star Trek, which can travel “faster than light/”

Alcubierre-warp-drive-manifold“In this way, the spaceship will be pushed away from the Earth and pulled towards a distant star by space-time itself,” Dr. Alcubierre wrote. Dr. White, the NYT reports, has likened it to stepping onto a moving walkway matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible at an airport.

Alcubierre’s theory, however, depended on large amounts of a little understood or observed type of “exotic matter” that violates typical physical laws.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a “warp bubble” in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time.

Yet another problem according to Serguei Krasnikov is that it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

Dr. White believes that advances he and others have made render warp speed less implausible. Among other things, he has redesigned the theoretical warp-traveling spacecraft — and in particular a ring around it that is key to its propulsion system — in a way that he believes will greatly reduce the energy requirements. But ”We’re not bolting this to a spacecraft,” he said of the technology.

Richard Obousy, a physicist who is president of Icarus Interstellar, a nonprofit group composed of volunteers collaborating on starship design, said “it is not airy-fairy, pie in the sky. We tend to overestimate what we can do on short time scales, but I think we massively underestimate what we can do on longer time scales.”

Dr. White likened his experiments to the early stages of the WW 11 Manhattan Project, which were aimed at creating a very small nuclear reaction merely as proof that it could be done.

Still, one of the most dubious is Dr. Alcubierre himself. He listed a number of concerns, starting with the vast amounts of exotic matter that would be needed. “The warp drive on this ground alone is impossible,” he said. “At speeds larger than the speed of light, the front of the warp bubble cannot be reached by any signal from within the ship,” he said. “This does not just mean we can’t turn it off; it is much worse. It means we can’t even turn it on in the first place.”

The Daily Galaxy via New York Times and Dr. David Lewis Anderson/Anderson Institute

Magnetic Graphene

Researchers Make Magnetic Graphene
UC Riverside research could lead to new multi-functional electronic devices
By Iqbal Pittalwala on January 26, 2015

Graphene is a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. UC Riverside physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. Image credit: Shi Lab, UC Riverside.

Graphene is a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. UC Riverside physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. Image credit: Shi Lab, UC Riverside.

RIVERSIDE, Calif. – Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has many desirable properties. Magnetism alas is not one of them. Magnetism can be induced in graphene by doping it with magnetic impurities, but this doping tends to disrupt graphene’s electronic properties.
Now a team of physicists at the University of California, Riverside has found an ingenious way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. They have accomplished this by bringing a graphene sheet very close to a magnetic insulator – an electrical insulator with magnetic properties.
“This is the first time that graphene has been made magnetic this way,” said Jing Shi, a professor of physics and astronomy, whose lab led the research. “The magnetic graphene acquires new electronic properties so that new quantum phenomena can arise. These properties can lead to new electronic devices that are more robust and multi-functional.”
The finding has the potential to increase graphene’s use in computers, as in computer chips that use electronic spin to store data.
Study results appeared online earlier this month in Physical Review Letters.
The magnetic insulator Shi and his team used was yttrium iron garnet grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy in his lab. The researchers placed a single-layer graphene sheet on an atomically smooth layer of yttrium iron garnet. They found that yttrium iron garnet magnetized the graphene sheet. In other words, graphene simply borrows the magnetic properties from yttrium iron garnet.
Magnetic substances like iron tend to interfere with graphene’s electrical conduction. The researchers avoided those substances and chose yttrium iron garnet because they knew it worked as an electric insulator, which meant that it would not disrupt graphene’s electrical transport properties. By not doping the graphene sheet but simply placing it on the layer of yttrium iron garnet, they ensured that graphene’s excellent electrical transport properties remained unchanged.
In their experiments, Shi and his team exposed the graphene to an external magnetic field.  They found that graphene’s Hall voltage – a voltage in the perpendicular direction to the current flow – depended linearly on the magnetization of yttrium iron garnet (a phenomenon known as the anomalous Hall effect, seen in magnetic materials like iron and cobalt).  This confirmed that their graphene sheet had turned magnetic.
Shi was joined in the study by UC Riverside’s Zhiyong Wang (first author of the research paper), Chi Tang, Raymond Sachs and Yafis Barlas.
Grants to Shi and his team members from the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation supported the research.

Search for Gravitational Waves

 

Science Powerhouses Unite to Help Search for Gravitational Waves

Scientists since Albert Einstein have believed that when major galactic events like supernova explosions or black hole mergers occur in the universe, they leave a trace. That trace, it is believed, takes the form of gravitational waves, ripples in the curvature of space-time that propagate as a wave, travelling outward from the source.

For over a decade, scientists and engineers have engaged in one of the most ambitious research efforts ever undertaken: to design, build and operate the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) to identify signs of gravitational waves.

From 2002 to 2010, hundreds of scientists worked together to bring the experiment to life. It required two gravitational wave observatories, 1,865 miles apart, working in unison: the LIGO Livingston Observatory in Livingston, Louisiana, and the LIGO Hanford Observatory, located near Richland, Washington. LIGO was developed and is managed by Caltech and MIT, and is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

For more of article:

NO JOY

Shell condenser   Testing brings no joy.

It appears that I have a major error in the coil lay out design.

The outer ring of the disk seems to be a short in the field that limits the rim to 485vac instead of the 80,000 that I was aiming for. The design of the coils was for a 600 volt per turn field. 485 volts is about right for the coils fully loaded sag.

 

Original_Tesla_Coil

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Tesla remarked in his “Boulder Colorado Notes” that with air coils, any 3rd coil aligned with and within the influance of the primary field would react with the same per turn voltage as the primary.

Note that this drawing of Tesla’s transmitter, the top toroid is covered with dimples. In the Wycliffe design the dome was covered with “scales” that did not touch but were connected in a star pattern at the center of each panel to prevent current circulation.

*   *   *   *   *

 

Pictorial schematic 03

Guess I should have paid better attention.

My present layout has all the power coils in axial alignment with the disk.  The skin of the disk acts as a short.

The naked main coil would light up florescent tubes 3 feet away.  The unpainted Disk over the coil limited the tubes lighting up to about 6 inches. The metal paint seems to be preventing enough radiation to cause any light up of the tubes. To solve this problem all the coils will be removed and used remotely for testing while a new coil system is designed.

A poly phase coil driver set is contemplated.  Most likely star configured and laid out axially between the frames 90 degrees from the disk axis.  pg

 

Impossible EM Thruster

An interesting “TOY” I stumbled on.  Reminds me of a device that T.Townsend Brown described in the late 1920s. His was a HV dc charged Crooks tube that moved in the direction of the positive charge during charging. Also described in a paper by Biefeld&Brown. pg

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NASA confirms ‘impossible’ thruster actually works, could revolutionize space travel
By Drew Prindle — August 1, 2014

Shawyer EM Drive test device

Shawyer EM Drive test device

When Roger Shawyer first unveiled his EmDrive thruster back around 2003, the scientific community laughed at him. They said it was impossible, that it was based on a flawed concept, and couldn’t work because it goes against the laws of conservation of momentum. But somehow, despite all of the reasons it shouldn’t work, it does. Shawyer’s engine provides thrust by “bouncing microwaves around in a closed chamber.” That’s it. There’s no need for a propellant of any kind like rocket fuel. When filled with resonating microwaves, the conical chamber of the thruster experiences a net thrust toward the wide end. These microwaves can be generated using electricity, which can be provided by solar energy. In theory, this means that the thruster can work forever, or at least until its hardware fails. Initially, the idea was met with criticism because it flies in the face of Newtonian physics, which dictate that no closed system can have this kind of net thrust. Shawyer, however, says that net thrust occurs because the microwaves have a group velocity that’s greater in one direction when Einstein’s relativity comes into play. But can it really? Apparently, yes. The idea was by a group of Chinese scientists back in 2009. They built their own version of Shawyer’s thruster and were able to produce 720 mili newtons of force — but even then, nobody really believed it.
Scientists at NASA just confirmed it;
Abstract: This paper describes the eight-day August 2013 test campaign designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasma dynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micro newton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the “null” test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities. Publication Date: Jul 28, 2014 propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the “null” test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities. Jul 28, 2014

Now, American scientists at NASA have given the EmDrive a go, and once again confirmed that it actually works. The test results were presented on July 30 at the 50th Joint Propulsion Conference in Cleveland, Ohio, and astonishingly enough, they are positive. The team behind the drive still doesn’t know why it works, just that it does……………By Drew Prindle — August 1, 2014

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Theory    EM Drive home site.
Principle of Operation
At first sight the idea of propulsion without propellant seems impossible. However the technology is firmly anchored in the basic laws of physics and following an extensive review process, no transgressions of these laws have been identified.
The principle of operation is based on the well-known phenomenon of radiation pressure. This relies on Newton’s Second Law where force is defined as the rate of change of momentum. Thus an electromagnetic (EM) wave, travelling at the speed of light has a certain momentum which it will transfer to a reflector, resulting in a tiny force.
If the same EM wave is travelling at a fraction of the speed of light, the rate of change of momentum, and hence force, is reduced by that fraction. The propagation velocity of an EM wave, and the resulting force it exerts, can be varied depending on the geometry of a waveguide within which it travels. This was demonstrated by work carried out in the 1950’s. (CULLEN, A.L. ‘Absolute Power Measurements at Microwave Frequencies’ IEE Proceedings Vol 99 Part 1V 1952 P.100)
Thus if the EM wave travelling in a tapered waveguide is bounced between two reflectors, with a large velocity difference at the reflector surfaces, the force difference will give a resultant thrust to the waveguide linking the two reflectors. If the reflectors are separated by a multiple of half the effective wavelength of the EM wave, this thrust will be multiplied by the Q of the resulting resonant cavity, as illustrated in fig 1 below.

Shawyer EM drive figure 01

Shawyer EM drive figure 1

Fig 1. Diagram of an engine concept.
The inevitable objection raised, is that the apparently closed system produced by this arrangement cannot result in an output force, but will merely produce strain within the waveguide walls. However, this ignores Einstein’s Special Law of Relativity in which separate frames of reference have to be applied at velocities approaching the speed of light. Thus the system of EM wave and waveguide can be regarded as an open system, with the EM wave and the waveguide having separate frames of reference.
A similar approach is necessary to explain the principle of the laser gyroscope, where open system attitude information is obtained from an apparently closed system device.