pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.


disk gradiant2

disk gradiant

additional construction details of the top disk:

First   Upper disk 1   and  Upper disk 2



21 responses to “Concept

  1. Simon Derricutt October 14, 2018 at 3:52 am

    pg – the problem here seems to be that you’d also radiate a lot of the pulse energy, so it wouldn’t be very efficient and would also be somewhat dangerous to be close to. I’ve noticed that people who have done a lot of work with high-EMP systems tend to go a little mad and paranoid, so there are health problems with using unshielded kit.

    It may be possible to get around that by using 3 layers of metal with insulation between them, so driving the central layer will send a pulse down to the bottom where the energy can be retrieved again. There would be a wave in the dielectric layers, and if you’re using a spike pulse (from a spark gap which is about as fast as you can get) then there might also be dispersion and the pulse getting less sharp as it passes down the central conductor. Wavelength in PTFE or Polythene insulator (low-loss and Er about 2-2.1) at 6GHz is around 3.5cm, so this ought to work with a small disk rather than the large one you’ve built. Collecting the energy for re-use may be as simple as using a (very fast) full-wave rectifier, and feeding that rectified and smoothed power back into the power-supply. If there’s a high-speed and high-voltage in the shell from top to bottom in the shell, and a DC and low-voltage return going up a wire in the middle, then maybe that would have some effect. Initial quick-and-dirty test could simply terminate the RF at the bottom in the correct impedance so it doesn’t reflect back up again. Calculating the resistance needed may be a bit difficult. Wastes power, but you’d get an idea of whether it’s worth going further and recycling the energy.

    Still, I don’t know whether this concept will do the job. To get a large signal, you need resonance, but with resonance you’ve got waves going both ways and thus no effect possible. I also don’t know whether you can “get a hold of” space this way and push against it. As such, try it if you think it has a chance.

    Text-book explanations of magnetic fields of one electron on another show that momentum is not necessarily conserved. Mike McCulloch’s equations show that momentum is also quantised (and by extension implies that momentum isn’t conserved, too). By getting the fields and currents phased correctly it’s thus pretty obvious that we can produce a non-reactive force, though in normal situations that’s a very small unbalanced force and not enough to lift something – in fact it’s so small it’s pretty hard to actually measure anyway. As such, what you’re trying to do is not actually impossible, just somewhat difficult to find the right way to do it. Whether you explain it by using Aether theories or by some other way won’t make any difference to what actually happens, but some theories are more right than others and may give better things to try. First thing is thus to get an idea and try it out. If it works, great, but if not try to work out why it didn’t work.

    My idea is an extension of the concept of two current-loops spaced 1/4 wave apart and driven with a 90° phase difference. Text-book physics says that these will both see a force in the same direction, and not equal and opposite as Newton thought. Thus the idea is to produce a strong magnetic field and to use a current in it to get a force, and this force only gets to be a reasonable size once you’re up into the microwave region of several GHz. This isn’t based on Aether theory or indeed any other theory – it’s experimental fact that a current in a magnetic field sees a force and that the EM wave moves at the speed of light. The idea is thus to prove it works, and then people can argue over the theory as to why it works. Get the experimental proof.

  2. p.g.sharrow October 23, 2018 at 7:30 pm

    @Simon: I greatly appreciate your insight and critique. You seem to be the only one willing to examine the proposed efforts and take the time to reply. I apologize for taking so long to create this reply but I needed to reread it several times and think about it.

    The radiation of RF is the point to get a stiff enough field in the Aether to traction in. Yes it is dangerous! All observations of UFOs seem it indict that fact. US Naval experiments in this field from the 1940s to end of the 1960s have given indications of this fact of danger to personnel as well. Operating a Microwave inside out is dangerous and can be disruptive to local radio/radar systems.
    My present test site is in a radio RF “hole” and I make tests brief. With me as remote as possible.

    My present radiation power source is limited to 500watts to the Tesla coil. This can be boosted with a bigger driver, the high “Q”coil was tested to 40,000v per turn of stress and can carry 5-7 amps of current ! Far more then I will need for any testing. The traction pulse from top down over the disk is yet to be created. I would guess that a car ignition coil could supply the needed pulse. It will do 40,000vdc, I have created 2- 40,000v diode banks to be used for that purpose. The needed speed of that pulse would be quite slow, likely audible range. !0 to 20 KHz

    To make things more effective later a bottom disk will be needed to complete the two plate capacitance shell. To start with, just the top disk will be needed. Efficiency of energy use is not a part of my considerations at present, just getting dependable results will suffice.

    In the long run the total device shell should ring at the frequency needed to organize the local Aether. The frequency determined by the shell diameter and the voltage of it will determine the amount and strength of it’s effect on the Aether.

    This effort is so far outside of accepted science that any dependable and readily observable results will be enough to justify better created components as well as design improvements…pg.

  3. Simon Derricutt October 24, 2018 at 2:41 am

    pg – if the Aether is everywhere, then it will be there inside a shield (Faraday cage or box made of continuous sheet) just as much as outside the shield, so logically using a shielded system should still work and be a lot safer to be around since you won’t have those microwaves around you. Not a lot of point in having a spacecraft that works if it kills you to use it.

    As far as I can tell, the unbalanced forces get larger and thus more useful the higher frequency you use. If we’re talking about pushing against a magnetic field, for example, and the 1/4 wave offsets in distance and phase I mentioned above, then the closer you can get the loops the higher the magnetic field is going to be and the bigger the force, and of course at higher frequencies the 1/4 wave distance gets smaller. Tesla coils are maybe good to 100kHz or so, and it’s only really with the spark-gaps you’re going to get any really high-frequency components (that will also interfere with radio comms and may annoy neighbours and the authorities). To get a spark with a high edge rate the spark-gap does need careful design and relatively small and fast capacitors (round plates connected at the centres, where the radius of the disk is around 1/4 wavelength of the highest frequency you wish to attain), with inductance in the wires as low as you can achieve. Makes life difficult if you want to do something big, though, since even straight wires have inductance. Still, if you can get the top of the craft fed with a square-wave, and there’s no dispersion of that as it travels down the outside of the craft, you may be able to get an effect. I don’t know…. Problem is that GRP on one side of the conductor and air on the other will give dispersion, and thus the sharp edges will deteriorate as the wave moves down the shell, and the highest frequencies will also be damped by the losses in the GRP. It’s thus going to be hard to get the waveforms you hope to. You’ll also need to terminate those waves at the bottom of the disk so they don’t simply reflect back up it. I don’t know how to calculate the actual resistance needed across the inside and outside conductors at the bottom, and you may need to find that out by experiment. Since you’re feeding the top with chopped DC, those resistors will need to dissipate the power you’re putting in so may get a bit warm at 500W, and of course they’ll need to be non-inductive resistors with a very high frequency range (almost-zero inductance in fact). You may be able to get close-enough by using a lot of surface-mount resistors (at least they’re cheap) connected across the inner and outer conductors. To get the value of the resistance right you need to know the characteristic impedance of the disk at the point you put the resistors.

    As I understand it, you intend to produce high-frequency waves running from top to bottom of the disk with none running the other way. A bit difficult to achieve, and may need some RF measuring kit you haven’t got, in order to be able to measure what that wave is actually doing.

    It seems to me that such a wave may well produce propulsion, but it also may be inducing the air around it to move rather than grabbing hold of the Aether. It’s a bit like a linear motor really, with waves running down the outside (and inside) from top to bottom. Testing something that big in vacuum may be a little difficult, especially since the materials it’s made of aren’t vacuum-safe and will outgas for a very long time.

  4. p.g.sharrow October 24, 2018 at 7:32 am

    @Simon; that is a lot to digest. you are right the tesla coil system I have will resonate about 20 KHz at whatever voltage stress I set up the primary coils for from 10s of thousands of volts up to 4 million volts. Lots of harmonics from the spark gap. Damn! ! ! just dawned on me! It’s that spark gap that is the key to the radiation. not the current/voltage in the coil. More to think on.
    . You are correct, it is a linear motor design that must work in atmosphere and vacuum… pg

    Wow! could it be that simple? I need to redesign my brains POV of the electronics involved here and change the connections for the active components….pg

  5. Simon Derricutt October 24, 2018 at 1:49 pm

    pg – hopefully it could be that simple. Making a fast spark-gap needs the impedance of the (effective) transmission line to change as little as possible. That really means making it as a coax, and tapering in the sheath at the same time as the core tapers either side of the gap to keep the impedance constant (or nearly) – may need to know the width of the spark to calculate the sheath at the gap. I can’t remember who it was who I was discussing that with a decade or so ago who gave me that bit of information. Still, makes sense. You don’t want the high-frequency waves getting reflected by the impedance discontinuity. At the bottom of the disc, too, you don’t want the waves reflected to head back up again, so work out the impedance there and terminate in the characteristic impedance. Where the spark-gap coax joins the disc you may need a balun to stop the RF going down the outside of the coax, too. RF is strange stuff. If you can still find it, use Silver-plated Litz wire for carrying the spark current, since again the highest frequencies have a shallow skin-depth and so the more surface you have and the better the conductivity it is the better.

    Probably be a while till you read this – it sounds like you’re going to be out in the shed fixing stuff. It’s all about RF, really, and getting those high frequencies where they are needed. If you use standard AC wiring, it either won’t pass RF well or will put it where you don’t want it.

  6. p.g.sharrow October 24, 2018 at 2:05 pm

    @Simon the real connection to the Aether is in the spark generated in the sparkgap ! If that spark shield is a part of the disk the disk will resonate along with the gap shield box…pg

  7. Simon Derricutt October 24, 2018 at 2:34 pm

    pg – sounds like a good solution. The spark-shield sheath connects to either inside/outside conductor on the disk, and the spark receiver to the outside/inside (other conductor). Still may need that balun, though, since at the edge frequencies you want one side of the foil is effectively insulated from the other side – skin depth less than the foil thickness. The balun needs to be wideband, and good well into the GHz region – a tricky problem, since you can’t use toroids or ferrites – they’re not fast enough. It’ll run without that, but less power gets into the disk.

    You can ring the disk at its resonant frequency, but that means the waves are coming back up again from the bottom (can’t terminate the bottom). By the time they’ve gone to the bottom and back, though, the highest frequencies are likely to be somewhat reduced. Most of the high frequency should thus be going down. You may be able to do a sneaky termination of the highest frequencies you don’t want reflected up by using the right size capacitor (a few pF) with a termination resistor in series at the bottom. That way, the fundamental frequency will resonate and thus drive the sparks at that frequency, and the sparks will produce sharp edges that travel down to the bottom and get terminated there. This is all speculation, since I haven’t got a lot of RF experience – I only needed to learn it recently.

    But yes, getting the spark-gap right does seem pretty critical. I started off thinking “it’s just a gap”, but turns out that it’s somewhat more complex.

  8. p.g.sharrow October 24, 2018 at 3:31 pm

    @Simon; From the time of Tesla it was the spark that was considered the most direct connection for RF. just too dirty and sloppy (broadband) to use for modern transmission. If I wanted to ring the Aether Bell that would be the place to do it from. Maybe at the focal point of the disk. It is an open bottom parabola disk….pg

  9. p.g.sharrow October 24, 2018 at 3:39 pm

    the spark gap is created by 2 deep reach IC engine plugs with some of the deep reach threads and grounding lug removed and they are threaded into a aluminum frame end electrode on one pointed at end electrode of the other. This allows me to adjust the gap from very narrow to over a inch wide. This will also allow for a great change in operating frequency of the primary driver. Auto plugs were the toughest electrodes that I could think of as the spark gap is a weak point in the Tesla coil design…pg

  10. Simon Derricutt October 25, 2018 at 2:17 am

    pg – I suspect the feeling that the spark was “the most direct way” was simply because of the high-frequency content. As such, you need to treat all the wiring as high-frequency and any failures on routing or impedance changes are likely to soften the edges and remove the highest frequency components. A good square wave will contain all frequencies up to the equivalent of the leading edge rise-time, and so like hitting a bell with a hammer (square-wave momentum transfer) and getting the bell ringing at its own resonant frequency. If you use a sine-wave at the bell’s frequency you can use far less power to get the same ring. The spark-gap use is saying “I don’t know what frequency I want but a hammer will work anyway if I hit hard enough”. The hammer however doesn’t work as well if you damp out the frequency it needs by not getting the wiring good enough. Probably all stuff you know anyway, but it may help to bring that into focus as regards what frequency you need to get the thing to work. It’s not the frequency of the square-wave itself, but somewhere way up in the harmonics of it that matters. Using a higher-frequency square wave won’t do the job if the edges are not sharp enough.

    As such, the stuff I’m doing is in the 5.8GHz range. That can be regarded as 172ps for the up, down, down, up wave, so edge rate is around 86ps for the most-negative to most-positive, and at around 5V RMS voltage into 50 ohms (the 600mW I’m using) that’s around 14V voltage-change over that time so 1V change takes around 12ps. Pretty fast edge-rate at around 80V/ns (and of course that’s average, with instantaneous edge-rate around 120V/ns). The nice thing about working at a specific frequency is that baluns are a lot easier to design and you know what the wavelength is, so you can also use specific lengths of open-ended coax to get double the voltage change or more – resonance can be utilised to achieve better results. You can also use directional couplers to get the wave moving in one direction only.

    Of course, you can use a resonant circuit on the spark-gap to get a specific frequency too (Tesla did a lot of that) and use a selected frequency in the rest of the design.

    Back to the linear motor idea, that works because the fields are out in the open. On the other hand, if the fields are enclosed (as they will be with a double-layer shell) then the electric and magnetic fields travel only between the two conductive planes. It seems you may need a single skin/plane for the “ground”, and maybe wires carrying the high-frequency where the wave can “reach out” into the space around them. Spacing of the wires needs to be far enough from each other that they interact more with the plane than each other. The wave also needs to travel in one direction only – with a normal antenna resonance is wanted and the wave is equal in both directions. As such, have a look at the microstrip formulae.

    It’s maybe possible to get the waves recycled at the far end of the microstrip plate by using stripline (or coax) construction (that is, shielded rather than open) to return them to the start point, and if you use directional coupling for the feed then you should be able to get a resonant travelling wave around the circuit, where going one way it’s microstrip (and thus open to the outside) and coming back it’s stripline and all fields are contained within the stripline. From an outside viewpoint, you see waves travelling only in one direction down the microstrip array. Dielectric losses in the stripline/microstrip can be reduced by either using air (a bit hard to get the spacings constant) or something like PTFE, polythene, polystyrene etc which have pretty low losses and do shorten the wavelength. There are laminates from Rogers that could be used, but a little expensive and maybe harder to get. Using something like fused Alumina makes the wavelength a lot shorter, and is also pretty low-loss, but again problems in getting it. Still, first tries on this could be done using FR4, if you’re more interested in proof of principle (as I would be). Permittivity of that is a bit variable, though, and the cheap Chinese PCB I’ve got here measures as a relative permittivity of 5.1 and not the 4.2-4.7 stated in the books.

    Yep, this is taking your idea and trying to get to the principle it works on, then redesigning it to utilise that principle a different way that is a lot easier to make. It’s a lot faster and easier to mill/etch a PCB than it is to build that disk, and just needs a bit of care to get the design right as regards wavelengths and impedances so there aren’t unwanted reflections and the wave you want only travels one-way. It replaces the Tesla coil with a small transmitter of a known frequency, too, so gets quite a bit safer if somewhat less dramatic. Still, if the linear motor idea is what you’re after, then it ought to work and the RF stuff you need isn’t that expensive. May need a bit more immersion in RF design to sort out the directional coupling and other details, though.

  11. Simon Derricutt October 25, 2018 at 7:16 am

    pg – further cogitations…. I’d been thinking initially of splitting the input into a number of microstrips that are phased to run in synchrony across the board. However, each such splitting into 2 sends half the power one way and half in the other, so I’m not certain that splitting wins you anything. Depends on whether the “grip on the Aether” is mediated by voltage, current or power. If it is shown to work, that question could be settled anyway by a short series of experiments using different characteristic impedances of microstrip. As such, first level needs microstrip running one way down the board, and stripline running back, with no nasty impedance mismatches on the way. Probably means that the transition to stripline happens over 1/4 wavelength on going in and coming out, and making a milled microstrip (on 2-sided pcb) into stripline simply means putting an extra single-sided pcb on top and connecting that through to the bottom layer with enough through-pins. It will probably need some way of adjusting the resonant length of the microstrip/stripline loop so the incoming wave that’s directionally-coupled in will be in-phase with what’s already on the microstrip and thus build up a travelling resonance situation. May simply do that by adjusting the frequency, of course. With cheap pcb, it should be possible to get a Q of somewhere 200-400 overall, so if you put in 2W of power (pretty cheaply available) then it’s equivalent to a simpler system (generating waves at one end, absorbing them at the other) using 400-800W. Should work out that the longer the stripline, the more force, and the extra dielectric losses from the stripline extra length hopefully give more extra force than the reduced overall Q reduces the force/length.

    The question really is why such force hasn’t been seen, given the number of devices using microwaves. Possibly because it’s a small force (likely in the mN range) and because most situations have waves going in multiple directions and try to avoid a resonance condition, except for antennae (where in any case the waves run in both directions). The force may be there, but it’s changing direction so fast it’s not noticeable. If it turns out to be a problem, use a bigger bolt to hold it in place…. As such, it may have been seen, but as a problem and not an opportunity (after all, it’s impossible to violate CoM, isn’t it?). Need to test it’s not simply accelerating the air and producing a reaction, though – a bit of smoke blown over it should tell us that.

  12. p.g.sharrow October 25, 2018 at 1:23 pm

    Does EMF create traction in the Aether? OK known indications:

    In the 1920s T.Townsen Brown observed that, while charging a suspended Crooks Tube, it would move in the direction of the positive charge. While in collage he demonstrated this to his physics professor Biefeld, this became known as the Biefeld – Brown effect. Brown claimed there was an extra amount of thrust over the Ion wind created.

    While I was operating a very high draw DC motor with 00 size conductors the cables would jump like a snake as it was switched on. 12vdc. very high amps. I have also seen similar jumping of
    high tension ignition wires. 25-40 thousand volts, very low current

    During the 1980s a Canadian J. Hutchison, was studying the effects of microwaves on metals in his shop. The shop was in a metal building with lots of metal shelving filled with surplus equipment. He was operation a modest size Tesla Coil and a microwave transmitter to drive a communication cone. He reported things would sometimes jump off of the shelves, Quite a nusince to him.

    When the young Tesla was working for Edison Electric in one of their DC generator plants a workman threw the switch connecting an energized 1200hp generator to the system without proper matching to the line. The EMF shock wave blew the workman away from the switchboard killing him. The control room where Tesla was working nearly 100 feet away had the windows blown in and Tesla was knocked down.

    Those that work in the fields have many fixes to limit these movements, so you are right , add a bigger bolt or another tie down or lash the conductors together to cancel the effect.

    Is this Amps, or voltage or power?

    Spark versus conduction of energy transfer any impact on the Aether should be most effective through the use of a spark. After that effect is proved and evaluated then an electronic means would be preferable

  13. Simon Derricutt October 26, 2018 at 2:12 am

    pg – AFAIK, the Biefeld-Brown effect has been tested in high vacuum and the thrust almost disappears. The construction of the lifters isn’t compatible with ultra-high vacuum anyway, since the materials will outgas for ages, so there will be ions to provide reaction thrust for a very long time. It’s going to be very hard to separate any real “push on space” from that ion reaction, given those difficulties in removing all the local ions. The evidence is thus somewhat iffy, and I wouldn’t trust it as such. Making a lifter is pretty easy, and so a lot of people have done that, but NASA tests (a bit more careful since if ti worked they’d want to use it in space drives) imply it only really works in atmosphere.

    For the high current DC motors, the kick of the leads is well-known, but then those leads are in the Earth’s magnetic field of around half a gauss. Much the same for the HV lines, in that we live in a magnetic field so a current will produce a force.

    I see you’ve fixed Hutchison’s spelling…. AFAIK, the effects are claimed to happen only around 20% of the time, and haven’t been independently verified. They don’t happen when people are there intending to measure them, so they settle for showing John’s videos and photos of the results. So far, no-one I know of has produced the same results by using his methods. A good stage magician could produce the same appearance of something weird happening, and people talking about this mention it only happens when John is present. As such, it’s somewhat easy to dismiss as a hoax. May be something real happening, but you need to have faith that John is telling all the truth. I’m not good at believing people are telling all the truth, when I know how good people can be at stage magic.

    Tesla’s experience with that early MW or so generator is about what you’d expect when vaporising the connecting wires. All the stored energy in the spinning generator core getting shorted over a very short time gives a massive instantaneous power.

    So far, therefore, not good examples which is why they are discounted as “pushing on the Aether”. However, I’d suggest looking at Faraday’s homopolar motor instead. Build one by placing a round magnet on the head of a screw, hang that screw from an AA battery by the point (the magnet holds it in place, and the battery case is steel), and connect the other side of the battery by a wire you hold against the outside of the magnet. Despite the fact that the magnet is spinning, this little motor will easily reach around 10krpm. Where does that angular momentum come from? What is producing the torque? Yet it indubitably works. The current from the wire passes through the magnetic field and causes a force as usual, but there’s nothing fixed to push against, so we have to say it’s pushing against the field itself and not the magnet that is creating that field.

    This seems to me to be the best evidence that you can push against a field and create angular momentum from nothing, and that we should be able to do the same with linear momentum. It’s been in the textbooks for a very long time, too, just ignored somewhat. We should be able to do the same with linear momentum, since the force on a current-carrying conductor depends solely on the field it’s seeing and not what created that field. The homopolar motor demonstrates that. Maybe some extra tests on the homopolar motor would be useful, in order to prove that the force on the brush-wire isn’t providing the reaction force (maybe check for torque-reactions of the complete motor system against how much torque it produces). If we could show definitively that torque is produced from nowhere in the homopolar motor, then that would show we can push against the Aether. I haven’t done that test, since I only thought of this last night in response to your examples. It’s possible that the torque is produced on the brush-wire, and that this wire provides the effective push.

    Still, the problem with working at DC is that the fields are conservative – action will equal reaction and so momentum (and angular momentum) ought to be conserved. When we’re instead working with AC, and a changing field, any changes can only propagate at c and so at a distance from the source the fields will be in the opposite direction to when they were emitted. Again, that’s in the textbooks. Place a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field that is the opposite phase to where it was emitted will produce a force in the opposite direction than we’d get if it was very close to the source. This seems a better way of “pushing on the Aether” in that it’s all stuff that’s been known for a long time and has been experimentally proven. Main problem is that in general the forces are pretty small, and an extra bolt to hold it down would be the normal response to having something move when you don’t want it to.

    It’s possible that your “linear motor” principle will work, too. I think however that the losses in the disk may be too great to get a decent amount of push, and again there’s that problem of checking for whether it’s pushing the air in the other direction and thus getting a reactive force – we can check for that, but if it happens then separating the push on the air and the push on the Aether could be a little difficult (same as the T.T.Brown lifters). I’m not expecting a large force to be shown, so experimental error will be large. Of course, if you get a large force then it makes things a lot simpler to be certain.

    I’ll get a board design sorted over the next few weeks and see if the basic linear motor idea works. The larger CNC miller is almost ready to test out anyway, which means I can do a reasonable size board (160mm long) that may be enough to show a result. Obviously I think that using microwave transmitters is somewhat more controllable than spark-gaps – means we only get the frequency we want and we’ll know the wavelengths, and can also tune for maximum resonance. It seems to me that achieving resonance, so the signal is a lot greater than we’re putting in, is the logical way of getting a larger response when the couplings aren’t that large.

  14. p.g.sharrow October 26, 2018 at 7:07 am

    @Simon; interesting observations on my examples, there have been far too many to go into. I hadn’t heard of Faraday’s homopolar motor. Something more to examine. It would seem that you are really into examining the possibilities. I would prefer that your electronic solution is the correct one but, I will continue with testing the spark gap electrical one as that is the direction I am familiar with and closest to getting done. Losses due to design mistakes are inevitable, I’ve run into a number already. Tiny positive effects won’t result in a valuable discovery anyway as we would be back to the maybe yes, maybe no of all the others. I am certain that broadcasting a signal and traction off of that is the solution and that the energy of that broadcast has to be intense. That would mean the voltage and frequency would need to be high. There seems to be a great deal more energy involved in electricity then we generally are used to when we get it out of wires and into the Aether,: see energy transfer : . We spend most of our efforts dealing with fields and condition caused by electrical currents in conductors, In this case we are interested in the near effects of electrical fields in the Aether. Basically the space between the broadcast antenna and the receiver. Is there torque between them? Yes there is or a motor won’t work. Does the Aether act as the receiver in that it absorbs the energy, yes. Can we get traction for propulsion, maybe. …pg

  15. Simon Derricutt October 27, 2018 at 4:42 am

    pg – it’s not that I’m trying to trash the examples, just that I’ve looked at them before and didn’t find them convincing. A lot of the historical stories would be pretty amazing if they’d actually been real and worked, and I can’t think of many situations in which a businessman would turn down a profitable invention simply because he was making money from one that was made irrelevant by the new one. What I see happen is that the people try instead to make the new invention and sell it, since they’ll make more money that way with less effort. Keely’s atmospheric engine had a lot of interest a century ago, and the only reason it didn’t take over the world is that it was a hoax and didn’t actually work – if it had worked then there was enough financial backing. Today, we see people trying to invest in Rossi in order to get a world-changing idea that will make them lots of profit as well. Problem is, Rossi’s a fraud, too. Look to the others to actually get something working.

    What I try to do with this work is to reduce the ideas to a working principle, and then think of the cheapest/quickest way I can to implement that principle. Here, I’m seeing that the force produced on a current by a magnetic field does not depend on the source of that field, and there’s thus maybe something there we can use to provide traction. I’m not sure if the linear motor idea will work in a vacuum, though, since I’m not sure we’re getting a relationship between the fields and currents that is unidirectional. Still, it’s a quick and dirty test that doesn’t cost much to do, so it may give us some more information. Knowing what doesn’t work is also a gain, after all. Even if the initial test doesn’t show any forces, though, it’s possible that messing around with the numbers of conductors and their phases, and getting that magic 1/4 wave spacing and phase-difference between them, could produce something measurable.

    I’m not certain it’s going to need massive amounts of power – though brute force can get results, could be application of a small force in the right place will give better results. High frequency looks to me to be a better path than high voltage or current, since the higher the frequency the smaller the thing can be and still work.

    Possibly you didn’t see my essay on what’s likely to be possible – has links backwards to the relevant earlier articles. It seems I’m trashing some fundamental laws of physics, but it’s more stating that they have limits even though they are applicable in almost all cases. However, it’s the precise situations where they don’t necessarily apply that interest me. Starting with CoM violation, since it looks to be the lowest-hanging fruit.

  16. p.g.sharrow October 31, 2018 at 8:45 am

    @ Simon: I try to read anything you bring to my attention.
    As we push beyond the accepted and into the wilderness, all clues must be examined and tested through logic as well as actions. How ever we do it, I believe that a short intense EMF broadcast will make the energy density stiff enough to work against as it pushes back on the transmitter…pg

  17. Simon Derricutt November 1, 2018 at 6:32 am

    pg – there’s a lot to read…. Generally, the electrical and magnetic fields produced by systems open to the outside won’t be very large, and so the effects will be small. You can make them larger by putting in more power, but a lot of that will be radiated and thus effectively wasted. That also makes it not safe to be near it, too. I think that even the “linear motor” idea, when run with a few GHz and resonating well, will still radiate most of the power rather than use it to produce a force. Because of that, I’m figuring it’s better to produce those fields in a resonant cavity that contains them rather than allowing them to radiate. That allows us to get to higher fields for the same power input, and also shields us from the effects of those fields.

    Basically, it’s looking possible to use high voltages and spark gaps to get a result in an open structure, but using a closed structure with a fixed high frequency that is resonant will likely produce orders of magnitude more effect. Less smoke, too. To find out, though, we need to build the stuff and measure the results.

  18. 3dclayman August 21, 2022 at 2:26 pm

    I have wondered for a long time about using knurling to increase the surface area of let me call it the top of a rocket engine. The part where thrust is exerted. Same size but 30% more surface area to push on.

  19. p.g.sharrow August 24, 2022 at 7:23 am

    In my studies of reaction engines/ rockets, the “push” is against the whole can and the escape velocity or “Impulse”, Basically how hard and fast you can throw shit out of the back-end of the jet to accelerate your rocket can. I don’t see how knurling all or part of the inside of the rocket can will improve “traction”,and therefore “Impulse” at the nozzle, of the reaction material.

  20. p.g.sharrow September 24, 2022 at 6:37 am

    WOW ! it just accrued to me. How this thing needs to be made and the why of the outer skin layout. My concept drawing above is closer then I thought but needs a bit of an addition…….Now the vector drive cans make sense ….pg

  21. Simon Derricutt September 28, 2022 at 7:47 am

    pg – yep, I lurk here but only generally add something when I think it’s going to be useful. I’ve been seeing other experiments on space-drives, with experimental results and (unfortunately) conflicting theories as to why they work. Testing something here, and if it works you get the how-to so you can also make it. You probably wouldn’t like the theory, but who really worries about that if you can build it cheaply and it works?

    Main use for such drives will, I think, be in generating energy without needing fuel. Thus the more thrust you can produce for the same input power, the better it is. Get the right device design, and you’ll be able to stop paying for electricity. Having flying cars, hoverboards, and space-craft is just a nice bonus on top.

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