pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.

Summer solstice to coincide with full moon for first time in 70 years

Once again the cycles of Earth, moon and sun have been fulfilled…pg

Tallbloke's Talkshop

Credit: NASA Credit: NASA

Strictly speaking it’s been 68 years but we get the idea.
For links to videos see the original IB Times report
.

For the first time in 70 years, the full moon will rise on the day of the summer solstice. The rare astronomical event will occur on Monday (20 June 2016) and will be observed all around the world.

Solstices happen twice a year and correspond to the moment when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point from Earth as it orbits the Sun.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the June solstice marks the beginning of summer and is the longest day of the year, because it has the longest period of daylight. [Well, yes.]

View original post 201 more words

Triple Peanut Cookies

Triple the peanuts of PB cookies, these are addictive, so beware. You can’t eat one!

My inability to get to the local cookie shop, 40 miles away, has forced me to attempt to make my own. Peanut Butter being my favorite type. After many disappointing results from published recipes, I decided to create my own. There are many kinds of peanut butter sold, depending on the additives used and the amount of peanut oil removed, so that is a contributing factor to flavor and consistency of the results. So beware, results may vary. The peanut flour and chopped/ground roasted peanuts help to minimize this problem and make these cookies the peanutty-est!
dry ingredients: mix in a bowl,  set aside
2-1/2 cups – all purpose flour
1 cup – peanut flour
1 tsp – baking powder
1 tsp – baking soda
1 tsp – salt
Grind or fine chop 1 – 1/2 cup of roasted peanuts,  set aside.
1 cup – crunchy peanut butter,  set aside
break 2 extra large eggs or 3 medium eggs ( 2/3 to 3/4 cup of egg liquid),  set aside
note: Important get the egg liquid amount right !  2 large eggs are not quite enough.

In your large mixing bowl add:
16 Tbs – butter, ( 2 sticks ) 1/2 lb soft or room temperature
1 cup – granulated sugar
1 cup – packed brown sugar
mix butter and sugar to a heavy cream texture, takes about 5 minutes
mix in peanut butter
mix in 2 teaspoons vanilla extract, add eggs and mix well

and then incorporate the ground/chopped peanuts

slowly add flour ( dry ingredients mix )

The dough should be moderately stiff and oily to the feel.
Onto your prepared cooking sheet, make into 1-1/4 inch size balls.
Flatten to the thickness you want the finished cookies to be.
Cook in a 350F preheated oven, for about 13 – 14 minutes, or just barely browned edges. As they cook they get bigger in diameter but not much thicker. They will finish a bit over 3 inches in diameter at 1/2 inch thick. Somewhat smooth surface with small cracks. Allow to cool a bit before transferring from cooking sheet as they will be a bit tender while hot. This should yield over 3 dozen cookies…pg

Note: they get even better with a day or two of ageing, if you can resist the temptation. My lady complains about these cookies when ever I make them. Generally while eating one.  😉  …pg

Discovery of Gravity Waves?

Febuary 11 2016  LIGO   cal.tech

LIGO announces discovery of gravity waves.  pdf

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES DETECTED 100 YEARS AFTER EINSTEIN’S PREDICTION    https://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/gravity-wave-space.jpg?w=720&h=443

 A pictorial representation of gravity waves in the fabric of space caused by 2 black holes spiraling together

Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory:

For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.
The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory
(LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA.
The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT. The discovery, accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters, was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
The twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors,

https://i0.wp.com/ligo.org/science/GW-Overview/images/LHO_tn.jpg

Aerial view of the LIGO detector in Hanford, WA. [Image: LIGO] – See more at: http://ligo.org/science/GW-Detecting.php#sthash.vwdtW7Hp.dpuf
Basic Design of the LIGO Interferometer
Layout of the LIGO Interferometer that measures the warpage of the earth as the force passes through the material of the planet. Lasers measure the differences in distance between the detectors as the earth is effected by the passing wave. The use of two observatories revels the direction of the point of origin.
At each observatory, the two-and-a-half-mile (4-km) long L-shaped LIGO interferometer uses laser light split into two beams that travel back and forth down the arms (four-foot diameter tubes kept under a near-perfect vacuum). The beams are used to monitor the distance between mirrors precisely positioned at the ends of the arms. According to Einstein’s theory, the distance between the mirrors will change by an infinitesimal amount when a gravitational wave passes by the detector. A change in the lengths of the arms smaller than one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton, (10 to the-19) meter, can be detected.
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Now that I have the experiment information down I can make my own remarks. A good follow up article on the experiment and it’s equipment.

The detection of gravitational waves – a triumph of science enabled by fossil fuels

It is wonderful that real experiments are carried out and reported on. But I reserve the right to infer my own conclusions from the results…pg

A tale of the first Solo flight

The airplane involved was a beautiful twin of the one below.

PIPER COLT

PA-22-108  Piper Colt  Specifications:

The airplane is a two-place, high wing, single engine airplane equipped with tricycle landing gear, constructed of welded steel tubing covered with Grade “A” fabric and finished with fire resistant butyrate dope.
This airplane is certified in the normal and utility category. In the normal category all aerobatic maneuvers including spins are prohibited. See the aircraft’s P.O.H. for approved maneuvers when in the utility category. The airplane is approved for day and night VFR/IFR operations when equipped in accordance with F.A.R. 91 or F.A.R 135.

The aircraft is powered by a Lycoming O-235-C1B or C1 and is rated at 108 horsepower. It is a four cylinder, normally aspirated, direct drive, air cooled, horizontally opposed, carburetor equipped engine.

The fuel for the Colt is carried in an 18-gallon fuel tank located in the inboard end of the left wing. As optional equipment, an auxiliary tank, located in the right wing, provides an additional 18 gallons of fuel. The auxiliary tank must be used in level flight only. An electric fuel gauge for each tank is located on the instrument panel.

Electrical power for the Colt is supplied by a 12 volt, direct current system. For all normal operations, power is provided by a 12 volt, 25-ampere generator. A 12-volt, 24 ampere battery is used in the system to furnish power for starting as a reserve power source.

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So begins the tale;

In early 1968 I was station at the U.S.Navy Base at Subic Bay, Philippines and decided that learning to fly was an interesting talent to pursue. There was a flying club at the adjoining Cubi Point Naval Air Station that provided aircraft and instruction to members, so I joined.  The club had two PA-22s for our training use, two  T-34s for more advanced use, as well as certificated instructors that were available to hire for the members.

After 10 hours of ground school, the flight training began. My instructor, a former Alaskan Bush Pilot.   After filing a flight plan with  air operations we pre-flight the airplane, kick the tires, check the fuel, untie the airplane from it’s anchors and fire up the engine, Cool!  Call up uniflight for taxi instructions to the flight line and then call up the tower. Identify ourselves, We are ready for take off.

The Navy of that time felt that it was a good idea to have semi trained pilots available to act as co-pilots with real Naval Pilots in case of an emergency need to move all of their airplanes during a pilot shortage. At least that was the excuse that was used to justify our use of military facilities for “Private club” use. At times we helped with the on the job training of the new tower controllers under much slower conditions then existed during Jet operations. It was kind of cool to be flying a brightly colored, rag covered, powered box kite among the heavy jets dressed in their somber warpaint. Just need to, NOT get in their way.

After clearance to take off, we depart the area toward the north over Subic City to an old, out of the way dirt strip, 20 miles out in the jungle, to practice flight maneuvers as well as touch & go, landing / takeoffs. After several of these we return to the base pattern and land after 2-1/2 to 3 hours of flight time.

After one of these touch & goes during the third day of instruction the instructor asked me to land and stop on the end of the dirt strip. He opened his door, hopped out, and said “Take her around on your own”.  OMG! ,,,,,Er ok. After 7 hours of total flight time I’m not so sure I am ready for this.

Well, I sped up the engine, taxi to the down wind of the runway, turned into the breeze, fire walled the throttle and with 200lbs less weight in the airplane it quickly took off, almost jumped into the air and quickly rose to 3,000 feet!  I flew a nice square pattern and soon found myself lined up with the down wind end of the runway.  Time to begin the decent back to the GROUND. I set up the aircraft trim for landing, throttled back, carburetor heat on to prevent ice buildup inside the carburetor and add a click of flaps to improve slow speed lift and slow the decent speed. This is not so bad, good glide slope, lined up with the runway. Everything looks good.

Just as I flare out to touch down, a hard cross wind hits, the airplane is floating off of the runway and over the 6 foot tall elephant grass.

OH CRAP!  I am nursing the aircraft controls to keep it on the ground effect bubble to keep the wheels out of the tall grass. Get rid of the power robbing carb-heat, smoothly adding throttle so the engine speeds up without stalling, and soon it all works. Air speed increases, I’m flying again! Slowly I get rid of flaps, gain airspeed and altitude.

I’m up in the air with airspeed and altitude, life is good, but the instructor is still standing on the end of the runway, 20 miles out in the jungle.

Back into the landing pattern I go. Now! how do I land in a stiff cross wind? Well I do remember hearing this discussed by other pilots. Maybe even mentioned during ground school instruction.

As I approach the end of the runway the plane is crabbed a good 30 degrees into the wind to move inline with the center of the runway. The trick is to fly in as slow as possible with some power and some flaps and as the wheels touch the ground, rotate the airplane into the runway centerline, get rid of flaps and power, push the nose down and apply the brakes.

Wow! it worked, not even a bounce.

 

I slowly taxied up to the instructor, he opened the door and got in.

Didn’t say a word, just sat there. The engine just kicking over in a slow idle  …………  …………..  ……….  ………….  …………  ………..  ……….  ……….  ……….  ……….  ……….

er, How did I do?

“Well,” he says, “You took off just fine, flew a nice square pattern, lined up a clean glide slope, flared out to land, just then that cross wind hit you. Off the runway you went into the elephant grass.  I was sure that I would have to walk back to the base, through 20 miles of jungle and explain to the base executive officer how I lost a pilot and plane.

You got it flying again! As you went by I figured you would just fly back to the base and land. This was not so bad, I would just have to hike those 20 miles back to the base and explain why my pilot came home alone.

Then, you went back into the pattern and tried to land into that cross wind. Again, I was sure that I would have to hike back to the base and explain how I lost a plane and pilot. And you landed it just like you knew what you were doing.”

“I will sign off on your logbook, you are cleared to fly solo!”

After that, an airplane just felt like an extension of me. Flying was as natural as walking or riding a bike.  😎   pg

Senate votes to ban taxes on internet

Senate votes to permanently ban taxes on internet services

By Jon Martindale — February 12, 2016

Running in line with some people’s thinking that Internet access should be a basic right, the U.S. Senate has voted to ban taxes levied on Internet access from ever being enacted. Known as the Permanent Internet Tax Freedom Act, it replaces and extends an already existing 18-year ban on Internet-related taxes that came to an end in October last year.
Although Internet access is a major component of the legislation, it also covers other aspects of the Internet. It prevents, for example, anyone from levying taxes that could target Internet-based services which are not otherwise available.
Several organizations have praised the legislation, with the Council for Citizens Against Government Waste in particular voicing its approval. It called it a “taxpayer victory,” suggesting that it would help prevent overbearing charges placed unfairly on consumers (as per PCWorld).
Read more: http://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/senate-votes-to-permanently-ban-internet-access-taxes

California, Drought or poor management

Victor Davis Hanson
The Scorching of California
How Green extremists made a bad drought worse
Winter 2015

MICAH ALBERT/REDUX
The drought has threatened to turn large tracts of farmland into dust.

In mid-December, the first large storms in three years drenched California. No one knows whether the rain and snow will continue—only that it must last for weeks if a record three-year drought, both natural and man-made, is to end. In the 1970s, coastal elites squelched California’s near-century-long commitment to building dams, reservoirs, and canals, even as the Golden State’s population ballooned. Court-ordered drainage of man-made lakes, meant to restore fish to the 1,100-square-mile Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, partly caused central California’s reservoir water to dry up. Not content with preventing construction of new water infrastructure, environmentalists reverse-engineered existing projects to divert precious water away from agriculture, privileging the needs of fish over the needs of people. Then they alleged that global warming, not their own foolish policies, had caused the current crisis.    For the rest of the article

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Very good but long read for the history of the present California water shortages.

Our main problem is politically directed bad management and not an unprecedented water shortage. California historically is very wet or very dry and the paradise that people here expect to enjoy is the creation of man and not god. The natural California is one of swamp or desert often in the same place during the same year.

Lake Sacramento the book pdf. History of the major floods 1700s though 1900s in the Central Valley.

Friends of Governor Brown plan to create two new cities in the south state, connected by the fast rail line. They need water for those cities and are establishing the legal system to take that water from Central Valley farmers that own those rights.
Follow the money! And the taxpayers of the state will PAY vast billions into the pockets of these developers.
Ecoloons and Federal Judges are just convenient tools…pg

Another Planet?

 Another ninth planet

planet-nine-160120b-02

On Jan. 20, scientists announced that a planet about 10 times more massive than Earth likely lurks in the distant outer solar system, orbiting perhaps 600 times farther from the sun than Earth does on average.

The evidence for the existence of this “Planet Nine” is indirect at the moment; computer models suggest a big, undiscovered world has shaped the strange orbits of multiple objects in the Kuiper Belt, the ring of icy bodies beyond Neptune. But direct evidence could come relatively soon, in the form of a telescope observation, Planet Nine’s proposers say.

Scientists believe they may have found a giant planet in our distant solar system, possibly the long-sought after Planet X.

It is believed to have a mass about 10 times that of Earth and orbits about 20 times farther from the Sun on average than does Neptune. As a result, it would take this new planet between 10,000 and 20,000 years to make just one full orbit around the Sun.

This may or may not be the giant planet that the Ancients speak of. One that orbits as close to the sun as the asteroid belt and then out again for 3600 years. This one is not a part of the 8 planet elliptical group, but orbits above and below the solar elliptic nearly 90 degrees.

At this point this is just an educated guess on where to look and what to expect.

The better our tools, the more we can surmise and see…pg

For the full article

Aether or Quanta ?

 

Aether has been in favor and out, for hundreds of years. About 100 years at a time for or against.  As we progress into the 21st century, once more it progresses back into consideration. In the early days of the study of electrical /electronic phenomenon it was posited that the propagation of Electro-Motive Force or EMF required a medium, Aether or ether,  for the radiation waves to effect and travel in. Maxwell proposed that light is an undulation in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. At the end of the 19th century Quantum particles became the latest thing as new atomic energy theories were promulgated. At the same time, a definitive experiment was conducted with much fanfare to prove the existence and flow of Aether as the Earth traveled in its’ orbit. The experiment failed to find any proof of Aether existence. This was declared by proponents of Quantum Physics that theirs’ was the only way and that Aether DID NOT EXIST! They claimed that they had no need for Aether to calculate their physics but their formulas all included “fudge factors” constants that supplant for that need.

In my opinion the failure was due to an incorrect understanding of fluid dynamics involved and gravitational effects of the Earth, Sun and the Solar System traveling within this medium. A number of later experiments detected indications of the existence of “Something” where there should be nothing. Astrophysicists of the last of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st have determined that over 84% of the apparent mass of the Universe can not be accounted for within the visible and projected not visible matter that makes up the Universe. Where is this mass hidden? What is this hidden mass? So called Dark matter or dark mass, what is it? Along with Dark Energy, these things constitute over 95% of the total constituents of the Universe. This thing that we do not detect but can only infer from the the behavior of things that we can observe.

Much like Einstein, I began my investigation into mass/inertia and gravity with light. How does light travel through space? How can light travel through Trillions of miles of space without change or loss of speed? How can this thing exhibit characteristics of both wave and particle? And just how can it exhibit one speed only, regardless of the speed and direction of its’ creation and detection. What is this thing, wave or particle? To the good, I do have an additional 100 years of scientific research to draw on during my examinations.

The model that I have come up with is that Aether is charge bubbles in chaos. As long as that charge is in chaos there is no signature to detect. That chaos is aligned or organized under EMF influence. While organized there is an EMF field that can be detected, That EMF travels in/on the highly compressed minute charge bubbles of the Aether. Research claimed that the speed of light travel through the vacuum of space as if were in an atmosphere compressed to 10,000psi. Remember charge pushes, repels charge.

Quanta energy transfer ; electrons, photons, neutrinos are just energy information traveling through these bubbles. Every EMF action causes an equal and opposite reaction from the neighboring bubbles, a perfect elastic that tends to concentrate the energy to the center of its’ path. If you drain that energy with a detection you “see” a particle that behaves as if it were a wave, but really only the energy is delivered. So if you had an Electron or Photon in your hand it actually would be a charge bubble or Quanta of charge that has a particular charge signature. All detection requires a Quanta of energy to create a signal in the detector because that is how much is required to make a valance change in an atom in the detector. We “see” particles because we “see” units of energy. Without a Quanta of energy there is no signal of detection. Imagine if you will, a long rod of copper or glass, wire or fiber. If you poke a quanta of energy into one end, a quanta of energy must jump out at the other end. This is because the electronic stress within the conductor must maintain balance. The energy information is transferred not a particle. The quanta that jumped out of the conductor is not the one that went in. That movement of energy information moves at the conduction speed of that material.
Electrons, photons, neutrinos, etc. are all Aether with different electronic signatures caused by differences in the 3 dimensions of charge in motion.

Mass/inertia of matter is an external effect in the Aether caused by the internal low or lack of charge of protons and high charge of electron shells. The charge of Aether and the resistance of change in retaliative motion of charges in the Aether. Charge in motion resists changes in its’ velocity, strength, in all 3 dimensions. Just like mass/inertia of matter. They are interchangeable.

Gravity is caused by the difference of charge between Aether and Matter. These causes a linear warpage in the atomic dielectric or position of the nucleus within the Electron shell or atomic surface of matter.  This electronic linear deflection of the atomic center of gravity is the cause of the apparent acceleration of Gravity caused by the matter attempting to center its’ mass within its’ physical shell….pg

Survay of peaceful Muslims

Another Email from Keith:
The Clarion Project video is the most succinct explanation of proportionate Islamist risk and clarity of numbers that I have ever seen. It is and well worth the time to view and help in future conversations.
Many Thanks, Keith
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This is very, very informative. It’s not left wing or right wing. It’s just an accounting told by a Muslim woman and basically reveals the percentages and numbers of jihadists, Islamists, and Fundamentalist groups amongst the Muslim population. It’ll make you ponder.

The President insists that 99.9% of the Muslims in the world are “just like you and me” and should not be feared. And, yet, Trump wants a temporary ban on allowing all Muslims entering the country until we can figure out a way to determine which ones are radical. The argument against his proposal is that it would prevent the 99.9% of peaceful Muslims from entering our country.
Some have wondered why those 99.9% of peace loving Muslims have never spoken out to denounce all the worldwide carnage rendered by the .01% of the radical Muslims who they claim have “hijacked” their religion. This excellent video, produced by a Muslim woman, explains why no one has spoken up. After you watch it you might have reason to believe that Trumps proposal just may not be so outlandish after all.

http://go.clarionproject.org/numbers-full-film/

Support for Suicide Bombing
An average of 14% of Muslims surveyed believes suicide bombing and other forms of violence against civilian targets in defense of Islam can be often justified or sometimes justified. This
translates to 119 million people.
Based on actual
population sizes (i.e., the sum of the Muslim populations of each country surveyed by Pew multiplied by the average for that particular country), the number is 136 million.

Among young, Western Muslims aged 18-29, the percentages who believe that suicide bombings against civilians can be justified are as follows:
42% of French Muslims
35% of British Muslims
and 26% of American Muslims.

Honor Killings
An average of
39% of Muslims surveyed think it is often, sometimes or rarely justified to kill a woman if she engages in premarital sex or adultery.
This translates to 345 million people.

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OMG!…pg

In Search of the‘Ultimate’ Battery

Storage of electrical energy is a serious problem. The requirement to provide power on demand in short bursts, directly by generation, forces us to size the generation capability larger then the greatest projected demand. Chemical generation requires the same sizing problem along with recharging or renewing the device. Super capacitors and ionic batteries may provide storage of electricity and supply it directly without efficiency robbing conversion in and out of chemical solutions.

Paper like electrical energy storage in super capacitor – batteries

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University researchers have developed a paper-like material for lithium-ion batteries that has the potential to boost by several times the specific energy—or amount of energy—that can be delivered by the battery. The new material produced by researchers at the University of California-Riverside’s Bourns College of Engineering is composed of sponge-like silicon nanofibers. The research team used a technique known as electrospinning, in which 20,000 to 40,000 volts are applied between a rotating drum and a nozzle to emit a chemical compound. The compound is composed mainly of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), frequently used in the semiconductor industry. The nanofibers are then exposed to magnesium vapor to produce the sponge-like silicon fiber structure.
The material could be used in batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and personal electronics, according to the researchers.
Conventionally produced lithium-ion battery anodes are made using copper foil coated with a mixture of graphite, a conductive additive and a polymer binder. However, the performance of graphite has been nearly tapped out, according to the UC Riverside researchers, so they are experimenting with silicon, which has a specific capacity that is nearly 10 times higher than graphite.
Silicon has a downside: it suffers from significant volume expansion, which can quickly degrade the battery. The silicon nanofiber structure created in the lab of Mihri Ozkan, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at UC Riverside, circumvents this issue and allows the battery to be cycled hundreds of times without significant degradation, according to the researchers. The researchers contend that eliminating the need for metal current collectors and inactive polymer binders while switching to an energy dense material such as silicon will significantly boost the range capabilities of electric vehicles.
Free-standing materials grown using chemical vapor deposition, such as carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowires, can only be produced in very small quantities (micrograms). By contrast, the UC Riverside researchers were able to produce several grams of silicon nanofibers at a time even at the lab scale.The researchers’ next step is to implement the silicon nanofibers into a pouch cell format lithium-ion battery, which is still a larger scale battery format that can be used in EVs and portable electronics.
The UC Riverside Office of Technology Commercialization has filed patents for inventions reported in the research paper. The paper, “Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers,” has been published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports. The research was supported by Temiz Energy Technologies.
The paper describing the research was authored by Mihri Ozkan along with Cengiz S. Ozkan, a professor of mechanical engineering, and six of their graduate students: Zach Favors, Hamed Hosseini Bay, Zafer Mutlu, Kazi Ahmed, Robert Ionescu and Rachel Ye.
1 Farad is a serious hand full
Researchers at LinköpingUniversity’s Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Sweden, have developed what they call “power paper” – a new material that consists of nanocellulose and conductive polymer, capable of storing energy.
One sheet of power paper is 15 cm in diameter, a few tenths of a millimeter thick, and capable of storing as much as 1 farad, similar to that of supercapacitors currently on the market. The team’s material takes a few seconds to re-charge and can be re-charged up to hundreds of times. The material the researchers used to create the power paper, looks and feels like a strong sheet of plastic paper.

This piece of power paper can store 1 farad. (Source: Thor Balkhed)
“Thin films that function as capacitors have existed for some time. What we have done is to produce the material in three dimensions. We can produce thick sheets,” says Xavier Crispin, professor of organic electronics and co-author of the team’s article.
The paper is based on nanocellulose, cellulose fibers that are broken down into fibers about 20 nm in diameter once in contact with high-pressure water. With the cellulose fibers in a solution of water, an electrically charged polymer that is also in a water solution is added to the mix which is when the polymer forms a thin coating around the fibers.
“The covered fibers are in tangles, where the liquid in the spaces between them functions as an electrolyte,” says Jesper Edberg, a doctoral student who conducted the experiments.
The new cellulose-polymer material has set a new world record in simultaneous conductivity for ions and electrons, part of the reason why the team feels it is contains a high capacity for energy storage.
Unlike batteries and capacitors on the market today, power paper is constructed with simple and readily available materials, is waterproof, and does not require the use of harmful chemicals.
The team will face its next challenge in the development process – figuring out how to develop an industrial-scale process for this. Linköping University has just received funding to work on a paper machine that will produce power paper.

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Another fast-charging battery promises longer life.

The automotive industry is eager to see an electric vehicle (EV) battery that can be fully charged within five minutes, about the time it takes to fill a conventional vehicle’s gas tank. Actual charging time for an EV is over four hours.
Scientists at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore have developed such a battery. In tests at the university labs, the researchers demonstrated that the new battery could be charged up to 70% of its total charge in just two minutes, while enduring 20 times more charging cycles than today’s batteries. The team of researchers, led by Professor Chen Xiaodong from the School of Material Science and Engineering at NTU, developed this battery by replacing the traditional lithium-graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries with a new gel material made from titanium dioxide. This compound is very abundant, cheap and safe for human handling. It is commonly used as a food additive or in sunscreens to absorb UV rays.
To enhance the speed of the charging process, Professor Chen developed a method to convert the titanium dioxide particles into nanotubes. These nanotubes help to speed up the charging process by triggering a chemical reaction in the anode of the battery. “Manufacturing this new nanotube gel is very easy. Titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide are mixed together and stirred under a certain temperature. Battery manufacturers will find it easy to integrate our new gel into their current production processes,” Professor Chen said.
Professor Rachid Yazami, the scientist who 34 years ago invented the graphite anode used in lithium-ion batteries today, said that Chen’s invention is the next big leap the scientific community was waiting for. “While the cost of lithium-ion batteries has been significantly reduced and their performance improved since Sony commercialized it in 1991, the market is expanding towards new applications in electric mobility and energy storage,” said Professor Yazami. “There is still room for improvement and one such key area is the power density – how much power can be stored in a certain amount of space – which directly relates to the fast charge ability. Ideally, the charge time for batteries in electric vehicles should be less than 15 minutes, which Prof Chen’s nanostructured anode has proven to do,” he adds.
A paper published in the journal Advanced Materials describe the invention. The technology invented by Chen is being licensed to a company. It is expected that in two years’ time a new generation of fast-charging lithium-ion batteries will be available. “With our nanotechnology, electric cars would be able to increase their range dramatically with just five minutes of charging, which is on par with the time needed to pump petrol for current cars,” added Prof Chen. “Equally important, we can now drastically cut down the waste generated by disposed batteries, since our batteries last ten times longer than the current generation of lithium-ion batteries,” he adds.

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In search of Functional 90% More Efficient, ‘Ultimate’ Battery

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have demonstrated how many of the obstacles standing in the way of developing the “ultimate” battery can be overcome.
What is the “ultimate” battery?
Lithium-oxygen, or lithium-air batteries have been referred to as the “ultimate” battery due to their theoretical energy density, which is 10 times that of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery. Such a high-energy density would be comparable to that of gasoline—and would enable an electric car with a battery that is a fifth the cost and a fifth the weight of those currently on the market to drive about 400 miles on a single charge.
Challenges
As with many other next-generation batteries, there are several challenges that need to be addressed before lithium-air batteries become a viable alternative to gasoline.
Previous attempts at working demonstrators have had low efficiency, poor rate performance, unwanted chemical reactions and can only be cycled in pure oxygen.
Creating the “ultimate” battery
What the researchers created is a working laboratory demonstrator of a lithium-oxygen battery that has very high energy density, is more than 90% efficient and can even be recharged more than 2000 times, showing how several of the problems holding back the development of these devices could be solved.
The demonstrator has a higher capacity, increased energy efficiency and improved stability over previous attempts.
It relies on a highly porous, ‘fluffy’ carbon electrode made from graphene and additives that alter the chemical reactions at work in the battery, making it more stable and more efficient.
‘Fluffy’ Carbon Electrode Made from Graphene and Additives. Image Credit: University of Cambridge“What we’ve achieved is a significant advance for this technology and suggests whole new areas for research—we haven’t solved all the problems inherent to this chemistry, but our results do show routes forward towards a practical device,” says Professor Clare Grey of Cambridge’s Department of Chemistry.
There is a constant effort to achieve a smaller, more efficient battery among researchers. Apart from the possibility of a smartphone, which lasts for days without needing to be charged, the challenges associated with making a better battery could be damaging the take-off of electric cars and grid-scale solar power.
“In their simplest form, batteries are made of three components: a positive electrode, a negative electrode and an electrolyte,’’ says Dr Tao Liu, also from the Department of Chemistry, and the paper’s first author.
In the traditional Li-ion batteries we use in our laptops and electronics, the negative electrode is composed of graphite, the positive electrode is made of a metal oxide, such as lithium cobalt oxide, while the electrolyte is a lithium salt dissolved in an organic solvent. The action of the battery depends on the movement of lithium ions between the electrodes. Li-ion batteries are light, but their capacity deteriorates with age, and their relatively low-energy densities mean that they need to be recharged frequently.
The team’s method uses a very different chemistry than the earlier attempts at a non-aqueous lithium-air battery. It relies on lithium hydroxide instead of lithium peroxide. With the addition of water and the use of lithium iodide as a ‘mediator’, the battery showed less of the chemical reactions, which can cause cells to die, making it more stable after multiple charge and discharge cycles.
The researchers’ method reduced the ‘voltage gap’ between charge and discharge to 0.2 V. A small voltage gap means a more efficient battery.
Other issues that still have to be addressed include finding a way to protect the metal electrode so that it does not form spindly lithium metal fibers, as this can cause batteries to explode if they grow too much and short-circuit the battery.
Additionally, the demonstrator can only be cycled in pure oxygen, while the air around us also contains carbon dioxide, nitrogen and moisture, all of which are generally harmful to the metal electrode.
“There’s still a lot of work to do,” says Liu. “But what we’ve seen here suggests that there are ways to solve these problems—maybe we’ve just got to look at things a little differently.”
“While there are still plenty of fundamental studies that remain to be done, to iron out some of the mechanistic details, the current results are extremely exciting—we are still very much at the development stage, but we’ve shown that there are solutions to some of the tough problems associated with this technology,” says Grey.
The results were reported in the journal Science, and although they are making strides in the right direction, the researchers caution that a practical lithium-air battery still remains at least a decade away.
For more information, visit the University of Cambridge website.