pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.

Tag Archives: Condenser Disk

Is a Warp Drive possible

My son pointed me to this article at dailygalaxy.com about the latest thoughts of researchers about the possiblity of Faster then Light Travel space flight. True space flight will require FLT for several reasons, the main one being Space is a Very very large place. Rocket propulsion just won’t do. Too expensive, too slow, too dangerous.  Only Electro-motive-Force can be the long term solution. An EMF drive can also result in a warp bubble in the stuff of space or Aether that can continually be accelerated as it is not a part of Normal Space.

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“Routine travel among the stars is impossible without new discoveries regarding the fabric of space and time, or capability to manipulate it for our needs,” says Neil deGrasse Tyson, the “Cosmos famous” astrophysicist at the American Museum of Natural History, said “By my read, the idea of a functioning warp drive remains far-fetched, but the real take-away is that people are thinking about it — reminding us all that the urge to explore continues to run deep in our species.”

There have been hints in recent news that NASA may be on the path to discovering warp bubbles that could make the local universe accessible for human exploration. NASA scientists may be close announcing they may have broken the speed of light. According to state-of-the art theory, a warp drive could cut the travel time between stars from tens of thousands of years to weeks or months.The catalyst for the trending warp-drive excitement is the Electromagnetic Drive or EM Drive, a thruster that was engineered to steer rockets which eliminates the use of a propellant originally intended for moon missions, Mars missions and low-Earth orbit (LEO) operations.

The experiment that led to the possibility of faster than light interstellar travel took place in the vacuum of space. According to posts on NASASpaceFlight.com, a website devoted to the engineering side of space news, when lasers were fired through the EmDrive’s resonance chamber, some of the beams appeared to travel faster than the speed of light. If that’s true, it would mean that the EmDrive is producing a warp field or bubble. 

But “How?” If the laser beams are moving faster than the speed of light, then it would indicate that they are creating some sort of warp field, or bubble in the space-time foam, which in turn produces the thrust that could, in theory, power a spaceship bound for the center of the Milky Way or one of its dwarf galaxy satellites.

The bubble would contract space-time in front of the ship, flow over the ship, then expand back to normality behind it. It’s inaccurate to describe the spaceship as moving faster than the speed of light, but rather space-time is moving around the ship faster than the speed of light.

Harold G. White, a physicist and advanced propulsion engineer at NASA and other NASA engineers are trying to determine whether faster-than-light travel — warp drive — might someday be possible. The team has attempting to slightly warp the trajectory of a photon, changing the distance it travels in a certain area, and then observing the change with a device called an interferometer.

“Space has been expanding since the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago,” said Dr. White, 43, who runs the research project told the New York Times. “And we know that when you look at some of the cosmology models, there were early periods of the universe where there was explosive inflation, where two points would’ve went receding away from each other at very rapid speeds. Nature can do it,” he added. “So the question is, can we do it?”

In 1994, a Mexican physicist, Miguel Alcubierre, theorized that faster-than-light speeds were possible in a way that did not contradict Einstein by harnessing the expansion and contraction of space itself. Under Dr. Alcubierre’s hypothesis, a ship still couldn’t exceed light speed in a local region of space. But a theoretical propulsion system he sketched out manipulated space-time by generating a so-called “warp bubble” that would expand space on one side of a spacecraft and contract it on another.

An Alcubierre Warp Drive stretches spacetime in a wave causing the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship can ride the wave to accelerate to high speeds and time travel. The Alcubierre drive, also known as the Alcubierre metric or Warp Drive, is a mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional “warp drive” from Star Trek, which can travel “faster than light/”

Alcubierre-warp-drive-manifold“In this way, the spaceship will be pushed away from the Earth and pulled towards a distant star by space-time itself,” Dr. Alcubierre wrote. Dr. White, the NYT reports, has likened it to stepping onto a moving walkway matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible at an airport.

Alcubierre’s theory, however, depended on large amounts of a little understood or observed type of “exotic matter” that violates typical physical laws.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a “warp bubble” in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time.

Yet another problem according to Serguei Krasnikov is that it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

Dr. White believes that advances he and others have made render warp speed less implausible. Among other things, he has redesigned the theoretical warp-traveling spacecraft — and in particular a ring around it that is key to its propulsion system — in a way that he believes will greatly reduce the energy requirements. But ”We’re not bolting this to a spacecraft,” he said of the technology.

Richard Obousy, a physicist who is president of Icarus Interstellar, a nonprofit group composed of volunteers collaborating on starship design, said “it is not airy-fairy, pie in the sky. We tend to overestimate what we can do on short time scales, but I think we massively underestimate what we can do on longer time scales.”

Dr. White likened his experiments to the early stages of the WW 11 Manhattan Project, which were aimed at creating a very small nuclear reaction merely as proof that it could be done.

Still, one of the most dubious is Dr. Alcubierre himself. He listed a number of concerns, starting with the vast amounts of exotic matter that would be needed. “The warp drive on this ground alone is impossible,” he said. “At speeds larger than the speed of light, the front of the warp bubble cannot be reached by any signal from within the ship,” he said. “This does not just mean we can’t turn it off; it is much worse. It means we can’t even turn it on in the first place.”

The Daily Galaxy via New York Times and Dr. David Lewis Anderson/Anderson Institute

NO JOY

Shell condenser   Testing brings no joy.

It appears that I have a major error in the coil lay out design.

The outer ring of the disk seems to be a short in the field that limits the rim to 485vac instead of the 80,000 that I was aiming for. The design of the coils was for a 600 volt per turn field. 485 volts is about right for the coils fully loaded sag.

 

Original_Tesla_Coil

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Tesla remarked in his “Boulder Colorado Notes” that with air coils, any 3rd coil aligned with and within the influance of the primary field would react with the same per turn voltage as the primary.

Note that this drawing of Tesla’s transmitter, the top toroid is covered with dimples. In the Wycliffe design the dome was covered with “scales” that did not touch but were connected in a star pattern at the center of each panel to prevent current circulation.

*   *   *   *   *

 

Pictorial schematic 03

Guess I should have paid better attention.

My present layout has all the power coils in axial alignment with the disk.  The skin of the disk acts as a short.

The naked main coil would light up florescent tubes 3 feet away.  The unpainted Disk over the coil limited the tubes lighting up to about 6 inches. The metal paint seems to be preventing enough radiation to cause any light up of the tubes. To solve this problem all the coils will be removed and used remotely for testing while a new coil system is designed.

A poly phase coil driver set is contemplated.  Most likely star configured and laid out axially between the frames 90 degrees from the disk axis.  pg

 

Impossible EM Thruster

An interesting “TOY” I stumbled on.  Reminds me of a device that T.Townsend Brown described in the late 1920s. His was a HV dc charged Crooks tube that moved in the direction of the positive charge during charging. Also described in a paper by Biefeld&Brown. pg

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NASA confirms ‘impossible’ thruster actually works, could revolutionize space travel
By Drew Prindle — August 1, 2014

Shawyer EM Drive test device

Shawyer EM Drive test device

When Roger Shawyer first unveiled his EmDrive thruster back around 2003, the scientific community laughed at him. They said it was impossible, that it was based on a flawed concept, and couldn’t work because it goes against the laws of conservation of momentum. But somehow, despite all of the reasons it shouldn’t work, it does. Shawyer’s engine provides thrust by “bouncing microwaves around in a closed chamber.” That’s it. There’s no need for a propellant of any kind like rocket fuel. When filled with resonating microwaves, the conical chamber of the thruster experiences a net thrust toward the wide end. These microwaves can be generated using electricity, which can be provided by solar energy. In theory, this means that the thruster can work forever, or at least until its hardware fails. Initially, the idea was met with criticism because it flies in the face of Newtonian physics, which dictate that no closed system can have this kind of net thrust. Shawyer, however, says that net thrust occurs because the microwaves have a group velocity that’s greater in one direction when Einstein’s relativity comes into play. But can it really? Apparently, yes. The idea was by a group of Chinese scientists back in 2009. They built their own version of Shawyer’s thruster and were able to produce 720 mili newtons of force — but even then, nobody really believed it.
Scientists at NASA just confirmed it;
Abstract: This paper describes the eight-day August 2013 test campaign designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasma dynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micro newton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the “null” test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities. Publication Date: Jul 28, 2014 propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster, but instead will describe the test integration, test operations, and the results obtained from the test campaign. Approximately 30-50 micro-Newtons of thrust were recorded from an electric propulsion test article consisting primarily of a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity excited at approximately 935 megahertz. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level, within a stainless steel vacuum chamber with the door closed but at ambient atmospheric pressure. Several different test configurations were used, including two different test articles as well as a reversal of the test article orientation. In addition, the test article was replaced by an RF load to verify that the force was not being generated by effects not associated with the test article. The two test articles were designed by Cannae LLC of Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The torsion pendulum was designed, built, and operated by Eagleworks Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center of Houston, Texas. Approximately six days of test integration were required, followed by two days of test operations, during which, technical issues were discovered and resolved. Integration of the two test articles and their supporting equipment was performed in an iterative fashion between the test bench and the vacuum chamber. In other words, the test article was tested on the bench, then moved to the chamber, then moved back as needed to resolve issues. Manual frequency control was required throughout the test. Thrust was observed on both test articles, even though one of the test articles was designed with the expectation that it would not produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the “null” test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities. Jul 28, 2014

Now, American scientists at NASA have given the EmDrive a go, and once again confirmed that it actually works. The test results were presented on July 30 at the 50th Joint Propulsion Conference in Cleveland, Ohio, and astonishingly enough, they are positive. The team behind the drive still doesn’t know why it works, just that it does……………By Drew Prindle — August 1, 2014

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Theory    EM Drive home site.
Principle of Operation
At first sight the idea of propulsion without propellant seems impossible. However the technology is firmly anchored in the basic laws of physics and following an extensive review process, no transgressions of these laws have been identified.
The principle of operation is based on the well-known phenomenon of radiation pressure. This relies on Newton’s Second Law where force is defined as the rate of change of momentum. Thus an electromagnetic (EM) wave, travelling at the speed of light has a certain momentum which it will transfer to a reflector, resulting in a tiny force.
If the same EM wave is travelling at a fraction of the speed of light, the rate of change of momentum, and hence force, is reduced by that fraction. The propagation velocity of an EM wave, and the resulting force it exerts, can be varied depending on the geometry of a waveguide within which it travels. This was demonstrated by work carried out in the 1950’s. (CULLEN, A.L. ‘Absolute Power Measurements at Microwave Frequencies’ IEE Proceedings Vol 99 Part 1V 1952 P.100)
Thus if the EM wave travelling in a tapered waveguide is bounced between two reflectors, with a large velocity difference at the reflector surfaces, the force difference will give a resultant thrust to the waveguide linking the two reflectors. If the reflectors are separated by a multiple of half the effective wavelength of the EM wave, this thrust will be multiplied by the Q of the resulting resonant cavity, as illustrated in fig 1 below.

Shawyer EM drive figure 01

Shawyer EM drive figure 1

Fig 1. Diagram of an engine concept.
The inevitable objection raised, is that the apparently closed system produced by this arrangement cannot result in an output force, but will merely produce strain within the waveguide walls. However, this ignores Einstein’s Special Law of Relativity in which separate frames of reference have to be applied at velocities approaching the speed of light. Thus the system of EM wave and waveguide can be regarded as an open system, with the EM wave and the waveguide having separate frames of reference.
A similar approach is necessary to explain the principle of the laser gyroscope, where open system attitude information is obtained from an apparently closed system device.

Anomaly ???

Strange Anomaly discovered.

masked for metal skin  The second layer of metal paint is drying on the masked finished disk and I have a puzzle.  While sanding the first layer I looked down at the supporting legs and noticed that the one below me was displaced, strange, I know that they were centered.

So I examined the others.

  xxx

#2 leg door way

  xxx

This is the #2 leg, in the door way.

Note the leg is centered on the 4inch square on the plank. Ignore the scrap shim just under the leg. It was added to level the disk

#1 leg  xxx

  xxx

This is the #1 leg to the rear left in the top picture. The leg is displaced 1 inch clockwise from the center of the 4inch square . I even tried to move the disk by pushing and tugging it.  this thing is heavy and sits solid.

#3 leg  xxx

  xxx

This is #3 leg front left in picture. Also displaced 1inch clockwise from center of pad.

We have had severer thunder storms over the last week. One was less then 1 second away.

  xxxx

I’ve been trying to ignore this for the past 2 days.  Then decided that I should publish this note.  Just for the record,  as I am sure that all three legs were centered on their pads.  Now I will recenter them.   pg

Condenser Disk

Condenser disk

Condenser disk primed for paint

Condenser disk primed for paint

The golden disk is no more. The rough surface of polyester and aluminum foil has been sanded and coated.

The disk is now smooth and primed.  The 4 legs supporting the frame have been removed and replaced with 3 supports under the the disk rim. The old  legs were distorting the disk, over the legs, as the frame was too lightly made for the weight of completed disk. The new supports are under the strongest part of the disk rim and spread the weight. after several months without the legs and the application of heat the distortion went away and I was able to finish the surface.

PG with his Chief Engineer!  er pest, Samurai.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After 20 pounds of Bondo and 2 gallons of primer have been applied and sanded down the dish is as smooth and true as I can get it. Next apply the surface layer. At present I lean toward metal paint, heavy laid and sanded smooth.  I tried a Stainless Steel spray paint on the disk cap.  That appears to work, it is tough and it conducts.  As it is Nickel-Chrome it should help with the Hall effect needed to manage the EMF fields,  not sure about leakage from the grains exposed edges. At least application design control should be easier. Just mask and shoot.  pg

Shell condenser

Smoke Test!

Circuit Smoke Test!

I could no longer stand it. Time to apply power and test the circuits.

Things were put away well enough and the floor cleaned. Other work caught up, So I hooked up the power supply and turned on the switch. The spark gap hissed nicely and there were no loud noises. I took out an old florescent tub, turned off the lights and  examined the fields. Emm……….. kind of weak. Turned things off after 10 minutes and had a late lunch.

Later in the evening, turned the lights off. Now dark and tested again. Discovered illumination inside the disk. After some crawling around found an arc, a short between the back of the pin cushion and the shell coil ground wire. Almost the center of everything, Damn! now I must take things apart and reroute a wire and seal the old route.

At least this design can be taken apart and changed.  pg

Hurrah! The Experiment is in it’s new home.

Condenser Disk on shop deck

Condenser Disk on shop deck

 

 

 

The disk has moved or at least we moved it!

Yesterday afternoon the deck/ceiling of the warehouse/shop was sufficiently completed and I had  5 strong men, me included, available. We moved the experiment to it’s new home.  FINALLY!  Still creating walls within the timber framing and it needs a roof. Maybe tarps this year and a real roof next year.  At least, now the disk has a home where I can work on finishing it and set up testing mounts. Below the deck is a warehouse dug into the hillside. The front wall, seen here. is masonry, 10 feet down into bedrock with the backside wall at ground level. more on this later.  pg