pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.

Tag Archives: science

gravity is a myth

The Earth sucks or does it?

On Gravity

Gravity causes exactly the same warpage as charge fields in atomic structures. Gravity behaves exactly the same as charge fields as to effects over distance. Charge fields are created by gravity. The potential for acceleration in an earth gravity field is 32ft per second for each second of acceleration, the charge field of earth is an linear accelerator. Investigations conducted in the 1800s established an average charge field of 300 volts per meter average in dry air. In a boring week I created a number of gravity batteries of oil, paper and foil. In all cases the batteries were positive on top and negative on the bottom. The voltage over distance was about .50 milivolts per 10 mils or 300volts over 1 meter. This was dielectric warpage as in a condenser, no current flow measured as this was a device to measure potential created by gravity. Do not confuse voltage potential with current flow! You have to gather the charge bodies as well as develop potential and create a controllable current flow as well as allow for recharge of the device. Dielectric warpage is the displacement of the nucleus from the center of the electron shell. The electron shell is the atomic surface and the nucleus the atomic mass or center of gravity. Whether gravitational fields or electrical charge fields the effect is the same, atomic warpage, ………..  for more of this post.On gravity

gravity and aether

Dielectric Warpage, This above representation of the atomic structure is difficult as the nucleon is so small within the electron shell. It is said that if the proton was the size of a basketball the electron shell would be the size of the United States. About 1 foot in 3,000 miles!

biefld-brown

wikipedia.org/wiki/Biefeld%E2%80%93Brown_effect

Electro-static forces within a charged capacitor warp the diaelectric of the atoms within the space between the plates, just as gravity would, creating the potential for acceleration as gravity does. This creates the possibility of creation of artificial gravity between 2 charged plates. …pg

Electronic Engine Proposed

Helical Engine Proposed

A new concept for in-space propulsion is proposed in which propellant is not ejected from the engine, but instead is captured to create a nearly infinite specific impulse. The engine accelerates ions confined in a loop to moderate relativistic speeds, and then varies their velocity to make slight changes to their mass. The engine then moves ions back and forth along the direction of travel to produce thrust. This in-space engine could be used for long-term satellite station-keeping without refueling. It could also propel spacecraft across interstellar distances, reaching close to the speed of light. The engine has no moving parts other than ions traveling in a vacuum line, trapped inside electric and magnetic fields.

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20190029657.pdf

Computer simulation results of Helical Engine

Proposed: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER study results of computer simulations

16 page .pdf on a study of computer simulations for a proposed electronic space propulsion system. Nothing real here but an interesting study on the possibility of electronic propulsion none the less….pg

 

Navy Patent to modify Mass / Inertia

Patent for a craft using an Inertial Mass Reduction Device   patent number 10,144,532B2

It was brought to my attention that a researcher for the U.S. Navy had patented a device for the reduction of mass / inertia,  last December, on work he has been doing  for the last 12 years.  There are many citations of papers of his own as well as work done by others,

After reading the patent claims it appears to me that this is a proposed device patent meant to cover the possibilities rather then an actual device. The author seems to use a great deal of techno-babble to dance around,  Not saying Aether,  to describe the EMF manipulation of the near to the craft, space, to reduce the effects of Mass / Inertia by creating a richly confused, 3 Dimensional field…pg

The Completed, New Old Project

The completed New Airwasher, a miniature Industrial fume scrubber .

see our patent. and patent drawings

We want to put these units out on long term loan to those that donate to our R&D effort, please indicate any interest in this comment thread below…pg

Airwasher

7inch x 12.5inch x 12inch high – 175 x 320mm x 300mm high T6c-Airwasher

The project of the last 2 years  is completed and several of these miniature industrial Airwashers are now being used by friends and my family members. They are testing it’s operation under real conditions of cleaning the air in their homes and to offer their critique on it.

The funnel to the left of the scrubber power  head is for an upended 2 liter soda pop bottle to supply additional makeup water as it evaporates and to maintain the proper operating water level within the machine. see below.

T6c Airwasher

With the supply bottle in operation the machine draws 58 watts of power as it cleans about 60 cubic feet of air a minute, while trapping the pollutants in the 4 liters of water in the clear acrylic plastic tank  bellow it.

With the exception of the water tank and the 2 Liter “pop” bottle, all of the plastic parts were created out of about 1 kilogram,  2+ pounds,  of ABS plastic on a small Desktop 3D Printer from files created with a desktop computer. Truly a manufacturing empire on my kitchen table! …pg

Any interest in this device should be added to the comments below…pg

up date: 4 August,  refinements to the scrubbing rotor have reduced the power consumption from 58-60 watts to  48-50 watts, increased the air flow, and reduced the sound levels it produces. I am now re-manufacturing the motors to improve their ability to support the rotors weight as it is many times heaver then the pump impeller that the motor was designed for.  …pg

The New Old Project – multiplication

The song of the little Robot is silent for the moment as I consider my kitchen table of little fume scrubbers and contemplate, my NEXT number.

A multiplicity of scrubbers

A multiplicity of scrubbers

The Black Airwasher on the left has been working for me for a couple of weeks as We , the robot and I, create new additions to it’s family. The Blue and Whites are nearly ready to go out into the world. All spiffy in their livery and labels. They just need motors and containment tubs to be completed.  There is a also a box, a Large Box, full of scrap and failures to show for my learning experience along the way. I am pleased with both the appearance and function of these tiny industrial fume scrubbing machines.

( man I have got to get a better camera or learn how to better use this one)

As this is an R & D effort, completed Blue and Whites will be sent out on permanent loan to those that donate $250 to my effort, so that they can evaluate, under real world conditions,  and offer their wisdom for needed improvements.  And I can continue to buy coffee for me and filament & electricity for the robot.

If interested in this device,  click on: Comments  and inter your remarks…pg

Next is to design and create a better water management system and base to replace that food container. This thing is getting too big for the little printer’s build bed. I must section and then glue up this next addition that will make the Airwasher more user friendly. Adding 16 oz. of water every 4 hours is a necessary thing,  but an annoyance. A 2 liter water supply bottle or even two of them would make servicing only a daily chore. The hand made ones of 25 years ago had this feature and it was planned on in the consumer model, but this little printer was just too small for the needed build footprint…pg

_______________________________________________________________________________________

February 22,2019  update

i1035 FW1.1

And there it is ! I will need to rework the files for a better and easier to print addition to the Airwasher but it works!  😎  hurrah !

If interested in this device,  click on: Comments  and inter your remarks…pg

Physics discussion on Aether Propulsion

disk gradiant

Physics discussion on Aether Propulsion

lifted from ChiefIO blog

25 September 2018 at 5:08 am

@Jim2:

It is looking like pervasive “fields” are all that is real, and “particles” are just what you get when something pokes the field. (So a photon hitting the “electron field” causes the “electron particle” to come into being and changes the “2 slot” outcome to the particle form… )

Basically, if we don’t look then everything is a field. It is when we look that it becomes particles…

Isn’t QM fun? 8-} /sarc;

25 September 2018 at 5:49 am

“Basically, if we don’t look then everything is a field. It is when we look that it becomes particles…”
yup! pretty much sums it up. K.I.S.S. ! 😎 …pg

  • Simon Derricutt says:

25 September 2018 at 9:46 am

Maybe a lot of the problem with QM is that we can visualise waves OK, and we know about particles and how they collide, and neither the maths nor the visualisation work that well for something that is both at the same time. This isn’t helped by the Copenhagen interpretation, which tells us that it’s only when we look that the wave functions “collapse” into a single result from being indeterminate before we look. Given the age of the universe, and the lack of people to look and measure, it makes sense that things happen whether we look or not. That problem of only having a real result when someone measures it was got over with Bohmian Mechanics, where a “guiding wave” determines the position and direction of a real particle (which makes the wave and the particle there at the same time, and thus things can happen without anyone to measure them). However, this explanation wasn’t chosen, possibly because it effectively posits an Aether (the medium that the guiding wave exists in), and people were trying to go away from anything Aether-like. As I’ve said before, though, if you’re going to have waves of any sort, then as far as we can tell *something* will be waving, and a model with inertial minuscule particles with springs between them is bound to work for a lot of the properties. Basically, you can’t get away from some sort of Aether, even if you rename it as spacetime and say there can be waves in spacetime, unless of course you try to make a model where waves don’t exist and it’s only particles. Since a particle model isn’t going to match reality when it comes to diffraction unless you give the particles some wave properties, and again that implies something being waved, finding a non-paradoxical description has so far escaped us.

At the heart of QM we thus have paradox, which tells us we haven’t yet got a good description of what is actually happening. The models we’ve got mostly work pretty well despite the paradox, though, so it’s the best we’ve got at the moment and mostly we ignore the paradoxes and choose the description of particle or wave depending on which one gives the right answer. Another problem with current theory is that it has inconvenient infinities turning up in the maths. Where these turn up, the technique of “renormalisation” is used, which basically means we ignore the infinities and take them out of the equations, and the rest of the equation then gives the right answer. It’s a fudge, and wasn’t liked at the time it was introduced (can’t remember who by), but sorts the problem. http://www.volkerschatz.com/science/renorm.html . Wikipedia has a nice explanation, too, that goes quite a bit deeper.

One thing that bugs me about all this complex maths is that it’s logical that the particles/waves themselves don’t have the capacity to do all the partial derivatives and integrations to work out where they ought to be. They really should simply react to the forces they see at any point in time (here and now forces and what happens as a result) and though the resultant path may be a little complex such as a conic section, it still ought to be calculable using numerical simulation where we use timesteps and the configuration/forces at each point and thus step through positions of the constituent parts.

Of course, all these theories assume momentum is absolutely conserved in an interaction, and that apart from borrowing/returning to the Heisenberg energy bank, that energy is conserved too. That may not be a valid assumption. It’s almost certainly the net result after an interaction (we normally see energy and momentum conserved), but may not be valid during the interaction. If inertia is quantised (as seems to be true from cosmological observations) then this will apply at the particle level too, and rather than being a continuous range, momentum can only be exchanged (or changed) in quanta. It’s possible that this may change the maths quite a lot. A small force won’t thus affect the velocity (below the necessary force to jump to the next momentum level), and the path of a particle won’t be a smooth curve but instead a series of straight lines as the momentum has step-changes. I figure that might make some difference to the calculations….

Feynman was required reading when I was learning physics. He was good at explaining things, and where he found things that didn’t make sense he changed them so they did make sense. Probably killed a few sacred cows on the way, and his personal life was unconventional too. I see nothing wrong in watching his lectures for entertainment. I haven’t the time this morning, so I’ll watch them somewhat later. More fun than a Marvel blockbuster with fights between groups of people with magic powers.

25 September 2018 at 1:52 pm

@Simon; Excellent essay on the logic of the problem of waves that appear to be particles, particles that behave as waves. Quantaize the medium, Call it what you want. I prefer Aether and this results in Mass/Inertia being external to Mater, the thing that matters to me…pg

25 September 2018 at 2:30 pm

If you “kick” the Aether hard enough (voltage) and fast enough (frequency) It will kick back hard. Just like the results in a Tesla coil operation. If you are operating a cone shape field by pulsing a signal over a cone or saucer shape within the high voltage/high frequency field you are operating a linear motor within the activated Aether. Electronic Propulsion!…pg

Kilauea Eruption May 2018

Hawaii

Hawaii

Leilani Estates-East Rift Zone

2018-5-16 east rift zone

p.g.sharrow May 16, 2018 at 8:50 pm Edit

Kilauea is a separate volcano grafted onto the side of Mauna Loa and has it’s own magma supply from 60 miles below. They are not well connected as Kilauea is just piled onto the side of Mauna Loa, so the whole thing could slip free! The East and West Rifts are the result of movements as the mass of overburden accumulates. As can be seen on the sea floor this has happened before and will happen again.

Watch this simulation of the area in question!

[https://youtu.be/VvMUJKFjAiA]
This already started in 2000 and is getting worse. The present “New outburst” is Kilauea dumping it’s lava into the spreading crack, The “Pink” dust and red lava of the outburst was old wet decomposed volcanic rock of the crack remelting and being pushed out ahead of the new lava from the Kilauea vent lake. The people evacuated from the effected area are being moved down slope to a community on the coast! What the ####! If this moves sloooowly there would be time to evacuate. If a fast slip happens It could be BAD for everyone on the Pacific Rim. A 100ft tsunami at Long Beach.California! …pg

borrowed this from “Tallbloke”   thanks oldbrew,  ht

This Thursday, May 17, 2018, aerial image released by the U.S. Geological Survey, shows a view of ground cracks on Pohoiki Road during an overflight of the eruptive fissure area at about 7:00 a.m. HST near Pahoa, Hawaii. Cracks continued to open and widen, some with horizontal and vertical offsets, in the area during the past 24 hours. These cracks are caused by the underlying intrusion of magma into the lower East Rift Zone in the Big Island of Hawaii. (U.S. Geological Survey via AP) [bold added]
.That “slump” has created a crack or void that is filling with melt and magma from the Kilauea main vent. As soon as the voids are filled and the main vent begins to refill, it will hydraulic the crack and push or lift the top of the slump. There will be quake swarms as the slump starts to travel. This is a huge train and will take time to get it rolling. Look for increased elevation of lava fountains at the cracks as a first warning of the voids being full, the main vent beginning eruption out burst as it refills.
I would be monitoring deformation just below that fault or fracture line for both linear and elevation changes. The deformation of the road illustrates the spreading as the slip moves.
This may be a false start or might become a Pacific coast disaster of massive proportions. This could take a few days or even millennia if the magma chamber fails to refill before cooling freezes the intrusion and temporarily locks the slip. I fear the worst…

There is Geological evidence of 200 ft Tsunami Waves all up and down the Pacific Coast.
I just talked to a friend that gathers interesting information. There are psychic indications of some major disaster, financial/physical, around September.. .pg

Map links,

these will open new tabs to latest maps

https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_earthquakes.html   earthquakes map

https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/status.html    Daily status report

https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html  lava flow maps

update:  Lava coverage as of 28 May 2018

East Rift May28

added 28 may 2018. Looks like PGV is about to be covered as it is now the lowest area down stream from  the most active vents.

image-450

Thermal image created from pixelation of helicopter over flight data. Dark pixels are cold, white are hot    From the stitch together this looks to be of 2 flights.

may28earthquake.jpg

Earthquake map above, for the week of 28 May 2018. Orange indicates latest quakes, Yellow, are the earlier quakes of this week. The size of the blips indicates the quake force. The red lines are surface fractures. The lava outflows are taking place just below the fork in the road in the pictures upper right corner. That band of quakes just to the southeast of the volcano is the head of the slip…pg

 

Once in a Blue Moon

Once in a Blue Moon, a Super Moon Eclipse

2018eclipeseclipse sequence

January sky watchers are in for a rare treat: a Blue Moon, a total lunar eclipse and a super moon all in the same month.A Blue Moon is when two full moons happen in the same calendar month; lunar eclipses occur when the moon passes into Earth’s shadow; and a Super Moon happens when the moon’s perigee — its closest approach to Earth in a single orbit — coincides with a full moon. In this case, the super moon also happens to be the day of the lunar eclipse. The first full moon of January will take place on the night of Jan. 1 or the morning of Jan. 2, depending on your location. The second full moon and the lunar eclipse will occur on the night of Jan. 31 or the morning of Feb. 1. And the super moon will take place on the night of Jan. 30, which is technically one day before the moon reaches peak fullness, but nonetheless even NASA is willing to call the event a super moon.

Not every place on Earth will see the Blue Moon this month, because the second full moon of January won’t technically appear in those places until Feb. 1. These places include regions in eastern Asia and eastern Australia, where sky watchers won’t see the first full moon until Jan. 2 and the next full moon until the morning of Feb. 1. For example, in Melbourne, Australia, the full moon arrives on Jan. 2 at 1:24 p.m. local time, and the next full moon is on Feb. 1 at 1:26 a.m., so sky watchers will technically miss the Blue Moon by less than 2 hours.

But their fellow Aussies in Perth, in the southwestern part of the country, will get one, since the first full moon occurs on Jan. 2 at 10:24 a.m. local time, so the moon will still look quite full when it rises at 7:35 p.m. On Jan. 31, the moon rises at 7:09 p.m. and reaches fullness at 9:26 p.m.

Blue Moons are not as rare as the old saying “once in a blue moon” implies; they happen about once every 2.7 years, because the number of days in a lunation (new moon to new moon) is a bit less than the usual calendar month — 29.53 days as opposed to 31 or 30 days (except for February, which has 28 days, so a blue moon cannot occur). A sequence of 12 lunations adds up to 354.36 days, against the 365.24 days in a year. The discrepancy adds up over time, until a year will have 13 lunations as opposed to 12. For some observers, 2018 will feature two such blue moons— one in January and one in March (with no full moon in February).

Super moon and lunar eclipse

lunar eclipes

The real star of the show for moon watchers is the lunar eclipse on Jan. 31. The super moon (when the moon reaches its closest point to Earth in this orbit) will be the day before, on Jan. 30 at 4:58 a.m. EST (0958 GMT). The moon will be 223,068 miles (358,994 kilometers) from Earth, compared to the average distance of 238,855 miles (384,400 km), according to NASA.

Though a super moon does appear slightly larger than a full moon that takes place when Earth’s lunar companion is farther away from us in its orbit, the difference is nearly impossible for most sky watchers to notice because the moon is so bright and the maximum possible difference in the moon’s apparent size is small (only about 14 percent), according to NASA.

Unlike solar eclipses which are only visible from specific places on Earth, lunar eclipses are visible from anywhere it is nighttime. Lunar eclipses don’t occur every month because the plane of the lunar orbit is slightly tilted relative to the plane of the Earth’s orbit, so the Earth, sun and moon don’t always line up to put the moon in Earth’s shadow. For the Jan. 31 lunar eclipse, viewers in some places will not be able to see the entire event because it starts near moonrise or moonset. Lunar eclipses are only visible on Earth’s night side.

Observers in New York City will see the moon enter Earth’s penumbra (the lighter, outer part of its shadow) at 5:51 a.m. on Jan. 31. The penumbra darkens the moon only a little; unless you’re especially keen eyed, it is often difficult to notice. The moon will touch the umbra, the darker part of the shadow that gives the eclipse the distinctive look of darkening and reddening the moon, at 6:48 a.m. local time. But the moon sets only 16 minutes later, so New Yorkers will get to see only the first part of the eclipse. To see as much of the eclipse as possible, you’ll want to be near a flat western horizon.

The situation gets better as you move west. Chicagoan’s will see the penumbra touch the moon at 4:51 a.m. local time, and it will still be a good 26.7 degrees above the horizon (about 53 times the apparent width of the full moon). The umbra eclipse will start at 5:48 a.m. local time, and by 6:16a.m., the moon will take on its characteristic blood-red color as it enters totality. Even so, it will set only minutes later, at 7:03 a.m., just as the sun rises.

In Denver and points west, the eclipse will start at 3:51 a.m. local time, with the umbra reaching the moon’s edge at 4:48 a.m. The point of maximum eclipse, when the moon is deepest in the shadow of the Earth, will occur at 6:29 a.m. For the Mile-High City, the moon will set after the lunar eclipse ends at 7:07 a.m. local time, when the moon exits the umbra. Moon set will follow at 7:10 a.m.

Californians will have a better view of the end of totality, as the penumbra eclipse will start at 2:51 a.m. local time, and the partial eclipse will begin at 3:48 a.m. At 4:51 a.m. local time, the total phase will start, ending at 5:29 a.m. Totality will end at 6:07 a.m., and the moon will emerge from the umbra at 7:11 a.m. The penumbra shadow will pass after the moon is just below the horizon.

As one travels west across the Pacific, the lunar eclipse will occur earlier in the night; sky watchers in Hawaii will be able to see the entire thing from beginning to end, as will Alaskans and viewers in eastern Asia and Australia. On Jan. 31, people in Tokyo will see the lunar eclipse’s penumbra phase start at 7:51 p.m. local time. The umbra will touch the moon at 8:48 p.m., and the maximum eclipse will be at 10:29 p.m. At 11:07 p.m., the moon will reach the opposite side of the umbra, and at 12:11 a.m. on Feb. 1, it will emerge and enter the penumbra. At 1:08 a.m., the eclipse will end for viewers in Tokyo.

People in eastern Europe and western Asia will see something like a mirror image of the eclipse that observers in the Americas will see, because instead of occurring near moon set, the eclipse will start before the moon rises.

Viewers in Moscow will see the moon make a dramatic entrance as it rises while it is still red and deep in Earth’s shadow. Moon rise there is at 5:01 p.m. local time on Jan. 31, and the moon will reach the edge of the umbra at 5:07 p.m. The moon will emerge from the dark part of Earth’s shadow at 6:07 p.m. In New Delhi, the moon will rise at 5:55 p.m. local time and will be fully covered by the umbra at 6:21 p.m., so it will turn red just as it reaches about a half a hand’s width above the eastern horizon.

Hopefully you will have clear viewing in the winter sky…pg

 

Further evidence of Aether

ESO/L. Calçada

We just got the first real evidence of a strange quantum distortion in empty space

It’s taken us 80 years to witness this.

 
BEC CREW
1 DEC 2016
 

For the first time, astronomers have observed a strange quantum phenomenon in action, where a neutron star is surrounded by a magnetic field so intense, it’s given rise to a region in empty space where matter spontaneously pops in and out of existence.

Called vacuum birefringence, this bizarre phenomenon was first predicted back in the 1930s, but had only ever been observed on the atomic scale. Now scientists have finally seen it occur in nature, and it goes against everything thatNewton and Einstein had mapped out.

More of article

Further evidence of the existence of Aether filling all of space. There Ain’t Nothing in Space! Space is jam packed full of something. Something that is effected by magnetic or Electro-Motive-Force. This EMF yields the phenomena of Mass/Inertia and Gravity…pg

EMF Thruster really Works

Artist concept of activity within thruster cavity that creates external thrust.

Figure

pictures of test device in front of vacuum  chamber.

Figure

A vacuum test campaign evaluating the impulsive thrust performance of a tapered radio-frequency test article excited in the transverse magnitude 212 mode at 1937 MHz has been completed. The test campaign consisted of a forward thrust phase and reverse thrust phase at vacuum with power scans at 40, 60, and 80 W. The test campaign included a null thrust test effort to identify any mundane sources of impulsive thrust; however, none were identified. Thrust data from forward, reverse, and null suggested that the system was consistently performing.

Read More: http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.B36120

An EMF propulsion device that really works! Next will be a test in space. A renewed NASA will have a new toy. The paradigm of the “Fabric of Space” will need to be rewritten..again…pg

Also see Impossible EM Thruster

From paper;  Discussion  

    Before providing some qualitative thoughts on the proposed physics potentially at work in the tapered RF test articles, it will be useful to provide a brief background on the supporting physics lines of thought. In short, the supporting physics model used to derive a force based on operating conditions in the test article can be categorized as a nonlocal hidden-variable theory, or pilot-wave theory for short.

Pilot-wave theories are a family of realist interpretations of quantum mechanics that conjecture that the statistical nature of the formalism of quantum mechanics is due to an ignorance of an underlying more fundamental real dynamics, and that microscopic particles follow real trajectories over time just like larger classical bodies do. The first pilot-wave theory was proposed by de Broglie in 1923 [4], where he proposed that a particle interacted with an accompanying guiding wave field, or pilot wave, and this interaction was responsible for guiding the particle along its trajectory, orthogonal to the surfaces of constant phase. In 1926, Madelung [5] published a hydrodynamic model of quantum mechanics by recasting the linear Schrödinger equation into hydrodynamic form, where the Planck constant was analogous to a surface tension σσ in shallow-water hydrodynamics and vacuum fluctuations were the reason for quantum mechanics. In 1952, Bohm [6,7] published a pilot-wave theory where the guiding wave was equivalent to the solution of the Schrödinger equation and a particle’s velocity was equivalent to the quantum velocity of probability. Soon after, the Bohmian mechanics line of thinking was extended by others to incorporate the effects of a stochastic subquantum realm, and de Broglie augmented his initial pilot-wave theory with this approach in 1964 [8], adopting the parlance “hidden thermodynamics.” A family of models categorized as vacuum-based pilot-wave theories or stochastic electrodynamics (SED) [9] further explored the concept that the electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations of the zero point field represent a natural source of stochasticity in the subquantum realm and provide classical explanations for the origin of the Planck constant, Casimir effect, ground state of hydrogen, and much more.

It should be noted that the pilot-wave domain experienced an early setback when von Neumann [10] published an impossibility proof against the idea of any hidden-variable theory. This and other subsequent impossibility proofs were later discredited by Bell 30 years later in 1966 [11], and Bell went on to say in the preface of his 1987 book [12] that the pilot wave eliminated the shifty boundary between wavy quantum states on the one hand and Bohr’s classical terms on the other: said simply, there was a real quantum dynamics underlying the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics.

Although the idea of a pilot wave or realist interpretation of quantum mechanics is not the dominant view of physics today (which favors the Copenhagen interpretation), it has seen a strong resurgence of interest over the last decade based on some experimental work pioneered by Couder and Fort [13]. Couder and Fort discovered that bouncing a millimeter-sized droplet on a vibrating shallow fluid bath at just the right resonance frequency created a scenario where the bouncing droplet created a wave pattern on the shallow bath that also seemed to guide the droplet along its way. To Couder and Fort, this seemed very similar to the pilot-wave concept just discussed and, in subsequent testing by Couder and others, this macroscopic classical system was able to exhibit characteristics thought to be restricted to the quantum realm. To date, this hydrodynamic pilot-wave analog system has been able to duplicate the double slit experiment findings, tunneling, quantized orbits, and numerous other quantum phenomena. Bush put together two thorough review papers chronicling the experimental work being done in this domain by numerous universities [14,15].

In addition to these quantum analogs, there may already be direct evidence supportive of the pilot-wave approach: specifically, Bohmian trajectories may have been observed by two separate experiments working with photons [16,17]. Reconsidering the double slit experiment with the pilot-wave view, the photon goes through one slit, and the pilot wave goes through both slits. The resultant trajectories that photons follow arTruespacee continuous real trajectories that are affected by the pilot wave’s probabilistic interference pattern with itself as it undergoes constructive and destructive interference due to reflections from the slits.

In the approach used in the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (also known as a Q thruster) supporting physics models, the zero point field (ZPF) plays the role of the guiding wave in a similar manner to the vacuum-based pilot-wave theories. To be specific, the vacuum fluctuations (virtual fermions and virtual photons) serves as the dynamic medium that guides a real particle on its way. Two recent papers authored by members of this investigation team explored the scientific ramifications of this ZPF-based background medium. The first paper [18] considered the quantum vacuum at the cosmological scale in which a thought experiment applied to the Einstein tensor yielded an equation that related the gravitational constant to the quantity of vacuum energy in the universe, implying that gravity might be viewed as an emergent phenomenon: a long wavelength consequence of the quantum vacuum. This viewpoint was scaled down to the atomic level to predict the density of the quantum vacuum in the presence of ordinary matter. This approach yielded a predicted value for the Bohr radius and electron mass with a direct dependency on dark energy. The corollary from this work pertinent to the q-thruster models is that the quantum vacuum is a dynamic medium and could potentially be modeled at the microscopic scale as an electron-positron plasma. The quantum vacuum around the hydrogen nucleus was considered in much more detail in the second paper [19]. Here, the energy density of the quantum vacuum was shown to theoretically have a 1/r41/r4 dependency moving away from the hydrogen nucleus (or proton). This 1/r41/r4 dependency was correlated to the Casimir force, suggesting that the energy density in the quantum vacuum is dependent on geometric constraints and energy densities in electric/magnetic fields. This paper created a quasi-classical model of the hydrogen atom in the COMSOL Multiphysics software (COMSOL is not an acronym) that modeled the vacuum around the proton as an electron-positron plasma. These analysis results showed that the n=1n=1 to 7 energy levels of the hydrogen atom could be viewed as longitudinal resonant acoustic wave modes in the quantum vacuum. This suggests that the idea of treating the quantum vacuum as a dynamic medium capable of supporting oscillations might be valid. If a medium is capable of supporting acoustic oscillations, this means that the internal constituents were capable of interacting and exchanging momentum.

If the vacuum is indeed mutable and degradable as was explored, then it might be possible to do/extract work on/from the vacuum, and thereby be possible to push off of the quantum vacuum and preserve the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. It is proposed that the tapered RF test article pushes off of quantum vacuum fluctuations, and the thruster generates a volumetric body force and moves in one direction while a wake is established in the quantum vacuum that moves in the other direction.

A vacuum test campaign that used an updated integrated test article and optimized torsion pendulum layout was completed. The test campaign consisted of a forward thrust element that included performing testing at ambient pressure to establish and confirm good tuning, as well as subsequent power scans at 40, 60, and 80 W, with three thrust runs performed at each power setting for a total of nine runs at vacuum. The test campaign consisted of a reverse thrust element that mirrored the forward thrust element. The test campaign included a null thrust test effort of three tests performed at vacuum at 80 W to try and identify any mundane sources of impulsive thrust; none were identified. Thrust data from forward, reverse, and null suggested that the system was consistently performing at 1.2±0.1  mN/kW1.2±0.1  mN/kW, which was very close to the average impulsive performance measured in air. A number of error sources were considered and discussed. Although thermal shift was addressed to a degree with this test campaign, future testing efforts should seek to develop testing approaches that are immune to CG shifts from thermal expansion. As indicated in Sec. II.C.8, a modified Cavendish balance approach could be employed to definitively rule out thermal. Although this test campaign was not focused on optimizing performance and was more an exercise in existence proof, it is still useful to put the observed thrust-to-power figure of 1.2  mN/kW1.2  mN/kW in context. The current state-of–the-art thrust to power for a Hall thruster is on the order of 60  mN/kW60  mN/kW. This is an order of magnitude higher than the test article evaluated during the course of this vacuum campaign; however, for missions with very large delta-v requirements, having a propellant consumption rate of zero could offset the higher power requirements. The 1.2  mN/kW1.2  mN/kW performance parameter is over two orders of magnitude higher than other forms of “zero-propellant” propulsion, such as light sails, laser propulsion, and photon rockets having thrust-to-power levels in the 3.336.67  μN/kW3.33–6.67  μN/kW (or 0.00330.0067  mN/kW0.0033–0.0067  mN/kW) range.     G. G. SpanjersAssociate Editor

 

I guess they will need Aether for this thing to work.

As they only used 300 volts as the bias field, They will need to study Tesla’s work, as MUCH higher voltages will be needed to really get traction on the stuff of space. At least 100 times greater to get real traction.

 

Tesla’s dream of an EMF propulsion system will be achieved and humans will have their Truespace drive. The second gift from GOD for this era…pg