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Tag Archives: science

Further evidence of Aether

ESO/L. Calçada

We just got the first real evidence of a strange quantum distortion in empty space

It’s taken us 80 years to witness this.

1 DEC 2016

For the first time, astronomers have observed a strange quantum phenomenon in action, where a neutron star is surrounded by a magnetic field so intense, it’s given rise to a region in empty space where matter spontaneously pops in and out of existence.

Called vacuum birefringence, this bizarre phenomenon was first predicted back in the 1930s, but had only ever been observed on the atomic scale. Now scientists have finally seen it occur in nature, and it goes against everything thatNewton and Einstein had mapped out.

More of article

Further evidence of the existence of Aether filling all of space. There Ain’t Nothing in Space! Space is jam packed full of something. Something that is effected by magnetic or Electro-Motive-Force. This EMF yields the phenomena of Mass/Inertia and Gravity…pg

EMF Thruster really Works

Artist concept of activity within thruster cavity that creates external thrust.


pictures of test device in front of vacuum  chamber.


A vacuum test campaign evaluating the impulsive thrust performance of a tapered radio-frequency test article excited in the transverse magnitude 212 mode at 1937 MHz has been completed. The test campaign consisted of a forward thrust phase and reverse thrust phase at vacuum with power scans at 40, 60, and 80 W. The test campaign included a null thrust test effort to identify any mundane sources of impulsive thrust; however, none were identified. Thrust data from forward, reverse, and null suggested that the system was consistently performing.

Read More:

An EMF propulsion device that really works! Next will be a test in space. A renewed NASA will have a new toy. The paradigm of the “Fabric of Space” will need to be rewritten..again…pg

Also see Impossible EM Thruster

From paper;  Discussion  

    Before providing some qualitative thoughts on the proposed physics potentially at work in the tapered RF test articles, it will be useful to provide a brief background on the supporting physics lines of thought. In short, the supporting physics model used to derive a force based on operating conditions in the test article can be categorized as a nonlocal hidden-variable theory, or pilot-wave theory for short.

Pilot-wave theories are a family of realist interpretations of quantum mechanics that conjecture that the statistical nature of the formalism of quantum mechanics is due to an ignorance of an underlying more fundamental real dynamics, and that microscopic particles follow real trajectories over time just like larger classical bodies do. The first pilot-wave theory was proposed by de Broglie in 1923 [4], where he proposed that a particle interacted with an accompanying guiding wave field, or pilot wave, and this interaction was responsible for guiding the particle along its trajectory, orthogonal to the surfaces of constant phase. In 1926, Madelung [5] published a hydrodynamic model of quantum mechanics by recasting the linear Schrödinger equation into hydrodynamic form, where the Planck constant was analogous to a surface tension σσ in shallow-water hydrodynamics and vacuum fluctuations were the reason for quantum mechanics. In 1952, Bohm [6,7] published a pilot-wave theory where the guiding wave was equivalent to the solution of the Schrödinger equation and a particle’s velocity was equivalent to the quantum velocity of probability. Soon after, the Bohmian mechanics line of thinking was extended by others to incorporate the effects of a stochastic subquantum realm, and de Broglie augmented his initial pilot-wave theory with this approach in 1964 [8], adopting the parlance “hidden thermodynamics.” A family of models categorized as vacuum-based pilot-wave theories or stochastic electrodynamics (SED) [9] further explored the concept that the electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations of the zero point field represent a natural source of stochasticity in the subquantum realm and provide classical explanations for the origin of the Planck constant, Casimir effect, ground state of hydrogen, and much more.

It should be noted that the pilot-wave domain experienced an early setback when von Neumann [10] published an impossibility proof against the idea of any hidden-variable theory. This and other subsequent impossibility proofs were later discredited by Bell 30 years later in 1966 [11], and Bell went on to say in the preface of his 1987 book [12] that the pilot wave eliminated the shifty boundary between wavy quantum states on the one hand and Bohr’s classical terms on the other: said simply, there was a real quantum dynamics underlying the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics.

Although the idea of a pilot wave or realist interpretation of quantum mechanics is not the dominant view of physics today (which favors the Copenhagen interpretation), it has seen a strong resurgence of interest over the last decade based on some experimental work pioneered by Couder and Fort [13]. Couder and Fort discovered that bouncing a millimeter-sized droplet on a vibrating shallow fluid bath at just the right resonance frequency created a scenario where the bouncing droplet created a wave pattern on the shallow bath that also seemed to guide the droplet along its way. To Couder and Fort, this seemed very similar to the pilot-wave concept just discussed and, in subsequent testing by Couder and others, this macroscopic classical system was able to exhibit characteristics thought to be restricted to the quantum realm. To date, this hydrodynamic pilot-wave analog system has been able to duplicate the double slit experiment findings, tunneling, quantized orbits, and numerous other quantum phenomena. Bush put together two thorough review papers chronicling the experimental work being done in this domain by numerous universities [14,15].

In addition to these quantum analogs, there may already be direct evidence supportive of the pilot-wave approach: specifically, Bohmian trajectories may have been observed by two separate experiments working with photons [16,17]. Reconsidering the double slit experiment with the pilot-wave view, the photon goes through one slit, and the pilot wave goes through both slits. The resultant trajectories that photons follow arTruespacee continuous real trajectories that are affected by the pilot wave’s probabilistic interference pattern with itself as it undergoes constructive and destructive interference due to reflections from the slits.

In the approach used in the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (also known as a Q thruster) supporting physics models, the zero point field (ZPF) plays the role of the guiding wave in a similar manner to the vacuum-based pilot-wave theories. To be specific, the vacuum fluctuations (virtual fermions and virtual photons) serves as the dynamic medium that guides a real particle on its way. Two recent papers authored by members of this investigation team explored the scientific ramifications of this ZPF-based background medium. The first paper [18] considered the quantum vacuum at the cosmological scale in which a thought experiment applied to the Einstein tensor yielded an equation that related the gravitational constant to the quantity of vacuum energy in the universe, implying that gravity might be viewed as an emergent phenomenon: a long wavelength consequence of the quantum vacuum. This viewpoint was scaled down to the atomic level to predict the density of the quantum vacuum in the presence of ordinary matter. This approach yielded a predicted value for the Bohr radius and electron mass with a direct dependency on dark energy. The corollary from this work pertinent to the q-thruster models is that the quantum vacuum is a dynamic medium and could potentially be modeled at the microscopic scale as an electron-positron plasma. The quantum vacuum around the hydrogen nucleus was considered in much more detail in the second paper [19]. Here, the energy density of the quantum vacuum was shown to theoretically have a 1/r41/r4 dependency moving away from the hydrogen nucleus (or proton). This 1/r41/r4 dependency was correlated to the Casimir force, suggesting that the energy density in the quantum vacuum is dependent on geometric constraints and energy densities in electric/magnetic fields. This paper created a quasi-classical model of the hydrogen atom in the COMSOL Multiphysics software (COMSOL is not an acronym) that modeled the vacuum around the proton as an electron-positron plasma. These analysis results showed that the n=1n=1 to 7 energy levels of the hydrogen atom could be viewed as longitudinal resonant acoustic wave modes in the quantum vacuum. This suggests that the idea of treating the quantum vacuum as a dynamic medium capable of supporting oscillations might be valid. If a medium is capable of supporting acoustic oscillations, this means that the internal constituents were capable of interacting and exchanging momentum.

If the vacuum is indeed mutable and degradable as was explored, then it might be possible to do/extract work on/from the vacuum, and thereby be possible to push off of the quantum vacuum and preserve the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. It is proposed that the tapered RF test article pushes off of quantum vacuum fluctuations, and the thruster generates a volumetric body force and moves in one direction while a wake is established in the quantum vacuum that moves in the other direction.

A vacuum test campaign that used an updated integrated test article and optimized torsion pendulum layout was completed. The test campaign consisted of a forward thrust element that included performing testing at ambient pressure to establish and confirm good tuning, as well as subsequent power scans at 40, 60, and 80 W, with three thrust runs performed at each power setting for a total of nine runs at vacuum. The test campaign consisted of a reverse thrust element that mirrored the forward thrust element. The test campaign included a null thrust test effort of three tests performed at vacuum at 80 W to try and identify any mundane sources of impulsive thrust; none were identified. Thrust data from forward, reverse, and null suggested that the system was consistently performing at 1.2±0.1  mN/kW1.2±0.1  mN/kW, which was very close to the average impulsive performance measured in air. A number of error sources were considered and discussed. Although thermal shift was addressed to a degree with this test campaign, future testing efforts should seek to develop testing approaches that are immune to CG shifts from thermal expansion. As indicated in Sec. II.C.8, a modified Cavendish balance approach could be employed to definitively rule out thermal. Although this test campaign was not focused on optimizing performance and was more an exercise in existence proof, it is still useful to put the observed thrust-to-power figure of 1.2  mN/kW1.2  mN/kW in context. The current state-of–the-art thrust to power for a Hall thruster is on the order of 60  mN/kW60  mN/kW. This is an order of magnitude higher than the test article evaluated during the course of this vacuum campaign; however, for missions with very large delta-v requirements, having a propellant consumption rate of zero could offset the higher power requirements. The 1.2  mN/kW1.2  mN/kW performance parameter is over two orders of magnitude higher than other forms of “zero-propellant” propulsion, such as light sails, laser propulsion, and photon rockets having thrust-to-power levels in the 3.336.67  μN/kW3.33–6.67  μN/kW (or 0.00330.0067  mN/kW0.0033–0.0067  mN/kW) range.     G. G. SpanjersAssociate Editor


I guess they will need Aether for this thing to work.

As they only used 300 volts as the bias field, They will need to study Tesla’s work, as MUCH higher voltages will be needed to really get traction on the stuff of space. At least 100 times greater to get real traction.


Tesla’s dream of an EMF propulsion system will be achieved and humans will have their Truespace drive. The second gift from GOD for this era…pg

Giant Full Moon

Watch for a Giant Full Moon November 14. it won’t be matched until 2034. So if you miss this one, mark your calendar for November 25 of that year. The moon only appears full from Earth when our planet is between the sun and the moon. But since the moon’s orbit has an elliptical shape, sometimes it is closer to Earth than other times. Astronomers call the closest-to-the-Earth moment the perigee. What makes November 14 special is that the moon “becomes full within about two hours of perigee—arguably making it an extra-super moon,” NASA explained.

Full Moon in the darkness of the night sky. It is patterned with a mix of light-tone regions and darker, irregular blotches, and scattered with varying sizes of impact craters, circles surrounded by out-thrown rays of bright ejecta.

Full moon view from the Northern Hemisphere…………Photo; Wikipedia_Moon

We have begun the cool down for winter and November might be known as the month when we set back the clocks, but it will also feature a special full moon, and it’s coming up soon.

The full moon on November 14 will be a notable “supermoon” that won’t be this close to Earth again for another 18 years. In fact, the last time it looked this big was 1948, according to If weather permits, you might get a closeup of the “Man in the Moon”, or at least as close as it gets…pg

Volcano in Rome has signs of life

A volcano in Rome has come back to life

Scientists are saying a dormant volcano on the outskirts of Rome is poised for an eruption. However, this may not occur for a number of years.

Researchers were stunned after they discovered Colli Albani, a volcano that was presumed extinct, is active once again.

This comes after a new report showed new steam vents, earthquakes and a rise in hill level in surrounding areas leads.

Alban Hills wikipedia

The Alban Hills (Italian Colli Albani) are the site of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Rome and about 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Anzio.

The dominant peak (but not the highest) is Monte Cavo at 950 m. There are two small calderas which contain lakes, Lago Albano and Lake Nemi. The rock of the hills is called Peperino (lapis albanus) a particular Tuff, a combination of ash and small rocks that is useful for construction, and provides a mineral-rich substrate for grape vines.

The area was inhabited by the Latini during the 5th to 3rd centuries BC. The ancient Romans called them Albanus Mons. On the summit was the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris, in which the consuls celebrated the Feriae Latinae, and several generals celebrated victories here when they were not accorded regular triumphs in Rome. The temple has not survived, but the Via Triumphalis leading up to it may still be seen.

The hills, especially around the shores of the lakes, have been popular since prehistoric times. From the 9th to 7th century BC there were numerous villages (see the legendary Alba Longa and Tusculum). In Roman times these villages were inhabited as a way to escape the heat and crowds of Rome, and there are many villas and country houses in the area.

Studies have found the volcano operates in a cycle of a 31,000-year dormancy to eruption period. Colli Albani last erupted 36,000 years ago. Fabrizio Marra, a volcanologist, believes the next eruption could be in 1,000 years.

Scientists are also saying that when the volcano does erupt, it has potential to be equally as destructive as Mount Vesuvius, which caused mass destruction in Pompeii back in 79 A.D.

Marra hopes these findings will serve as a “wake-up call,” and encourage fellow scientists to more closely monitor the volcano moving forward.

Volcanic activity

Examination of deposits have dated the four most recent eruptions to two temporal peaks, around 36,000 and 39,000 years ago.[1][2] The area exhibits small localized earthquake swarms, bradyseism, and release of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide into the atmosphere. The uplift and earthquake swarms have been interpreted as caused by a slowly growing spherical magma chamber 5-6 kilometers below the surface; some think that it may erupt again; if so, there is risk to Rome, which is only 25 to 30 km away.

The volcano emits large amounts of carbon dioxide.[6] This can potentially reach lethal concentrations if it accumulates in depressions in the ground in the absence of wind. The asphyxiation of 29 cows in September 1999 prompted a detailed survey, which found that concentration of the gas at 1.5 m above the ground in a residential area on the northwestern flank sometimes exceeded the occupational health threshold of 0.5%.

There are prophecies that say, Rome will be destroyed by earthquake and fire…pg

Discovery of Gravity Waves?

Febuary 11 2016  LIGO

LIGO announces discovery of gravity waves.  pdf


 A pictorial representation of gravity waves in the fabric of space caused by 2 black holes spiraling together

Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory:

For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.
The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory
(LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA.
The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT. The discovery, accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters, was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
The twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors,

Aerial view of the LIGO detector in Hanford, WA. [Image: LIGO] – See more at:
Basic Design of the LIGO Interferometer
Layout of the LIGO Interferometer that measures the warpage of the earth as the force passes through the material of the planet. Lasers measure the differences in distance between the detectors as the earth is effected by the passing wave. The use of two observatories revels the direction of the point of origin.
At each observatory, the two-and-a-half-mile (4-km) long L-shaped LIGO interferometer uses laser light split into two beams that travel back and forth down the arms (four-foot diameter tubes kept under a near-perfect vacuum). The beams are used to monitor the distance between mirrors precisely positioned at the ends of the arms. According to Einstein’s theory, the distance between the mirrors will change by an infinitesimal amount when a gravitational wave passes by the detector. A change in the lengths of the arms smaller than one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton, (10 to the-19) meter, can be detected.

Now that I have the experiment information down I can make my own remarks. A good follow up article on the experiment and it’s equipment.

The detection of gravitational waves – a triumph of science enabled by fossil fuels

It is wonderful that real experiments are carried out and reported on. But I reserve the right to infer my own conclusions from the results…pg

Another Planet?

 Another ninth planet


On Jan. 20, scientists announced that a planet about 10 times more massive than Earth likely lurks in the distant outer solar system, orbiting perhaps 600 times farther from the sun than Earth does on average.

The evidence for the existence of this “Planet Nine” is indirect at the moment; computer models suggest a big, undiscovered world has shaped the strange orbits of multiple objects in the Kuiper Belt, the ring of icy bodies beyond Neptune. But direct evidence could come relatively soon, in the form of a telescope observation, Planet Nine’s proposers say.

Scientists believe they may have found a giant planet in our distant solar system, possibly the long-sought after Planet X.

It is believed to have a mass about 10 times that of Earth and orbits about 20 times farther from the Sun on average than does Neptune. As a result, it would take this new planet between 10,000 and 20,000 years to make just one full orbit around the Sun.

This may or may not be the giant planet that the Ancients speak of. One that orbits as close to the sun as the asteroid belt and then out again for 3600 years. This one is not a part of the 8 planet elliptical group, but orbits above and below the solar elliptic nearly 90 degrees.

At this point this is just an educated guess on where to look and what to expect.

The better our tools, the more we can surmise and see…pg

For the full article

Aether or Quanta ?


Aether has been in favor and out, for hundreds of years. About 100 years at a time for or against.  As we progress into the 21st century, once more it progresses back into consideration. In the early days of the study of electrical /electronic phenomenon it was posited that the propagation of Electro-Motive Force or EMF required a medium, Aether or ether,  for the radiation waves to effect and travel in. Maxwell proposed that light is an undulation in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. At the end of the 19th century Quantum particles became the latest thing as new atomic energy theories were promulgated. At the same time, a definitive experiment was conducted with much fanfare to prove the existence and flow of Aether as the Earth traveled in its’ orbit. The experiment failed to find any proof of Aether existence. This was declared by proponents of Quantum Physics that theirs’ was the only way and that Aether DID NOT EXIST! They claimed that they had no need for Aether to calculate their physics but their formulas all included “fudge factors” constants that supplant for that need.

In my opinion the failure was due to an incorrect understanding of fluid dynamics involved and gravitational effects of the Earth, Sun and the Solar System traveling within this medium. A number of later experiments detected indications of the existence of “Something” where there should be nothing. Astrophysicists of the last of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st have determined that over 84% of the apparent mass of the Universe can not be accounted for within the visible and projected not visible matter that makes up the Universe. Where is this mass hidden? What is this hidden mass? So called Dark matter or dark mass, what is it? Along with Dark Energy, these things constitute over 95% of the total constituents of the Universe. This thing that we do not detect but can only infer from the the behavior of things that we can observe.

Much like Einstein, I began my investigation into mass/inertia and gravity with light. How does light travel through space? How can light travel through Trillions of miles of space without change or loss of speed? How can this thing exhibit characteristics of both wave and particle? And just how can it exhibit one speed only, regardless of the speed and direction of its’ creation and detection. What is this thing, wave or particle? To the good, I do have an additional 100 years of scientific research to draw on during my examinations.

The model that I have come up with is that Aether is charge bubbles in chaos. As long as that charge is in chaos there is no signature to detect. That chaos is aligned or organized under EMF influence. While organized there is an EMF field that can be detected, That EMF travels in/on the highly compressed minute charge bubbles of the Aether. Research claimed that the speed of light travel through the vacuum of space as if were in an atmosphere compressed to 10,000psi. Remember charge pushes, repels charge.

Quanta energy transfer ; electrons, photons, neutrinos are just energy information traveling through these bubbles. Every EMF action causes an equal and opposite reaction from the neighboring bubbles, a perfect elastic that tends to concentrate the energy to the center of its’ path. If you drain that energy with a detection you “see” a particle that behaves as if it were a wave, but really only the energy is delivered. So if you had an Electron or Photon in your hand it actually would be a charge bubble or Quanta of charge that has a particular charge signature. All detection requires a Quanta of energy to create a signal in the detector because that is how much is required to make a valance change in an atom in the detector. We “see” particles because we “see” units of energy. Without a Quanta of energy there is no signal of detection. Imagine if you will, a long rod of copper or glass, wire or fiber. If you poke a quanta of energy into one end, a quanta of energy must jump out at the other end. This is because the electronic stress within the conductor must maintain balance. The energy information is transferred not a particle. The quanta that jumped out of the conductor is not the one that went in. That movement of energy information moves at the conduction speed of that material.
Electrons, photons, neutrinos, etc. are all Aether with different electronic signatures caused by differences in the 3 dimensions of charge in motion.

Mass/inertia of matter is an external effect in the Aether caused by the internal low or lack of charge of protons and high charge of electron shells. The charge of Aether and the resistance of change in retaliative motion of charges in the Aether. Charge in motion resists changes in its’ velocity, strength, in all 3 dimensions. Just like mass/inertia of matter. They are interchangeable.

Gravity is caused by the difference of charge between Aether and Matter. These causes a linear warpage in the atomic dielectric or position of the nucleus within the Electron shell or atomic surface of matter.  This electronic linear deflection of the atomic center of gravity is the cause of the apparent acceleration of Gravity caused by the matter attempting to center its’ mass within its’ physical shell….pg

Solar Density

graph of seismic wave speeds through the solar body

 Seismic wave speed graph

The above is my reconstruction from the Wolff – Patrone paper, figure 6 graph referenced at:
The left gauge is seismic speed and the bottom is solar radius.

The red line represents the helioseismic sound speed relative to that would be expected in a uniform standard model sun. The shading is to give a better visual of the density changes as the wave travel speed up or down from the norm. Faster in more dense levels and slower in levels less dense.

In the paper the region of 0.65r to 0.72r seems to be the level that would have the most PE for cell overturn and positive contribution to solar output due to barycenter effects. This would seem to me to be a positive indication of “conveyer belt” motive power.

Once again the solar body is postulated to have little or no effect from solar system center of gravity as it is a body in free fall. They still neglect inertia of the solar mass although they do take into effect the suns’ rotational energies.

Wolff & Patrone call for the fusion fuel to be better supplied to the solar furnace due to the lower level cell mixing in the 0.16r to 0.3r layer. I agree that that is the most likely area for the fusion forge to be located but the mixing in that level from “cells” is, by their own admission very small.

The 0.72r to surface looks to be the solar face that we are used to. 😎 I am glad to see what is behind the shades. The real surface may be at the 0.72r line.

The stepped changes in speed relative to the expected straight line speed changes due to depth compression of the solar material gives us a better insight of the interior conditions of the sun. The basic premiss is that the more solid levels transmits waves faster then less solid levels. What conditions would result in changes in solidity? The possibilities are; liquid to solid, vapor to liquid, turbulence and energy vibration levels.

Accelerations in the 0.0r to 0.1r appear to dictate a very solid core. The deep slow down and then increase to the 0.27r level looks to be a region of change phase as upper liquid crystallizes to the lower solid level. The gradual freezing would cause speed changes because of liquid to solid interface interference, faster in clean ridged liquid, slower in mix and faster in clean solid. That step at 0.28r reminds me of the thermal step of heat of fusion in an otherwise smooth sine up to 0.45r and then down to 0.62. though it may well be the level of fusion of free hydrogen into captured neutrons. The level 0.52r to 0.62 would be the area of fission as unbound neutrons convert back to hydrogen to add energy to the “conveyer belt” or “cells”of the the upper 0.62 to 0.72liquid level. The speed changes in this top layer is due to turbulence of the horizontal flows. The straight line of the 0.72r to 1.0r is the compressed hydrogen gas sun, that we all know too well, and is a bit faster then the standard model. This is most likely the result of the averaging of the helioseismic data of the entire sun.  pg

Is a Warp Drive possible

My son pointed me to this article at about the latest thoughts of researchers about the possiblity of Faster then Light Travel space flight. True space flight will require FLT for several reasons, the main one being Space is a Very very large place. Rocket propulsion just won’t do. Too expensive, too slow, too dangerous.  Only Electro-motive-Force can be the long term solution. An EMF drive can also result in a warp bubble in the stuff of space or Aether that can continually be accelerated as it is not a part of Normal Space.


“Routine travel among the stars is impossible without new discoveries regarding the fabric of space and time, or capability to manipulate it for our needs,” says Neil deGrasse Tyson, the “Cosmos famous” astrophysicist at the American Museum of Natural History, said “By my read, the idea of a functioning warp drive remains far-fetched, but the real take-away is that people are thinking about it — reminding us all that the urge to explore continues to run deep in our species.”

There have been hints in recent news that NASA may be on the path to discovering warp bubbles that could make the local universe accessible for human exploration. NASA scientists may be close announcing they may have broken the speed of light. According to state-of-the art theory, a warp drive could cut the travel time between stars from tens of thousands of years to weeks or months.The catalyst for the trending warp-drive excitement is the Electromagnetic Drive or EM Drive, a thruster that was engineered to steer rockets which eliminates the use of a propellant originally intended for moon missions, Mars missions and low-Earth orbit (LEO) operations.

The experiment that led to the possibility of faster than light interstellar travel took place in the vacuum of space. According to posts on, a website devoted to the engineering side of space news, when lasers were fired through the EmDrive’s resonance chamber, some of the beams appeared to travel faster than the speed of light. If that’s true, it would mean that the EmDrive is producing a warp field or bubble. 

But “How?” If the laser beams are moving faster than the speed of light, then it would indicate that they are creating some sort of warp field, or bubble in the space-time foam, which in turn produces the thrust that could, in theory, power a spaceship bound for the center of the Milky Way or one of its dwarf galaxy satellites.

The bubble would contract space-time in front of the ship, flow over the ship, then expand back to normality behind it. It’s inaccurate to describe the spaceship as moving faster than the speed of light, but rather space-time is moving around the ship faster than the speed of light.

Harold G. White, a physicist and advanced propulsion engineer at NASA and other NASA engineers are trying to determine whether faster-than-light travel — warp drive — might someday be possible. The team has attempting to slightly warp the trajectory of a photon, changing the distance it travels in a certain area, and then observing the change with a device called an interferometer.

“Space has been expanding since the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago,” said Dr. White, 43, who runs the research project told the New York Times. “And we know that when you look at some of the cosmology models, there were early periods of the universe where there was explosive inflation, where two points would’ve went receding away from each other at very rapid speeds. Nature can do it,” he added. “So the question is, can we do it?”

In 1994, a Mexican physicist, Miguel Alcubierre, theorized that faster-than-light speeds were possible in a way that did not contradict Einstein by harnessing the expansion and contraction of space itself. Under Dr. Alcubierre’s hypothesis, a ship still couldn’t exceed light speed in a local region of space. But a theoretical propulsion system he sketched out manipulated space-time by generating a so-called “warp bubble” that would expand space on one side of a spacecraft and contract it on another.

An Alcubierre Warp Drive stretches spacetime in a wave causing the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship can ride the wave to accelerate to high speeds and time travel. The Alcubierre drive, also known as the Alcubierre metric or Warp Drive, is a mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional “warp drive” from Star Trek, which can travel “faster than light/”

Alcubierre-warp-drive-manifold“In this way, the spaceship will be pushed away from the Earth and pulled towards a distant star by space-time itself,” Dr. Alcubierre wrote. Dr. White, the NYT reports, has likened it to stepping onto a moving walkway matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible at an airport.

Alcubierre’s theory, however, depended on large amounts of a little understood or observed type of “exotic matter” that violates typical physical laws.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a “warp bubble” in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time.

Yet another problem according to Serguei Krasnikov is that it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

Dr. White believes that advances he and others have made render warp speed less implausible. Among other things, he has redesigned the theoretical warp-traveling spacecraft — and in particular a ring around it that is key to its propulsion system — in a way that he believes will greatly reduce the energy requirements. But ”We’re not bolting this to a spacecraft,” he said of the technology.

Richard Obousy, a physicist who is president of Icarus Interstellar, a nonprofit group composed of volunteers collaborating on starship design, said “it is not airy-fairy, pie in the sky. We tend to overestimate what we can do on short time scales, but I think we massively underestimate what we can do on longer time scales.”

Dr. White likened his experiments to the early stages of the WW 11 Manhattan Project, which were aimed at creating a very small nuclear reaction merely as proof that it could be done.

Still, one of the most dubious is Dr. Alcubierre himself. He listed a number of concerns, starting with the vast amounts of exotic matter that would be needed. “The warp drive on this ground alone is impossible,” he said. “At speeds larger than the speed of light, the front of the warp bubble cannot be reached by any signal from within the ship,” he said. “This does not just mean we can’t turn it off; it is much worse. It means we can’t even turn it on in the first place.”

The Daily Galaxy via New York Times and Dr. David Lewis Anderson/Anderson Institute

Magnetic Graphene

Researchers Make Magnetic Graphene
UC Riverside research could lead to new multi-functional electronic devices
By Iqbal Pittalwala on January 26, 2015

Graphene is a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. UC Riverside physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. Image credit: Shi Lab, UC Riverside.

Graphene is a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. UC Riverside physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. Image credit: Shi Lab, UC Riverside.

RIVERSIDE, Calif. – Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has many desirable properties. Magnetism alas is not one of them. Magnetism can be induced in graphene by doping it with magnetic impurities, but this doping tends to disrupt graphene’s electronic properties.
Now a team of physicists at the University of California, Riverside has found an ingenious way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene’s electronic properties. They have accomplished this by bringing a graphene sheet very close to a magnetic insulator – an electrical insulator with magnetic properties.
“This is the first time that graphene has been made magnetic this way,” said Jing Shi, a professor of physics and astronomy, whose lab led the research. “The magnetic graphene acquires new electronic properties so that new quantum phenomena can arise. These properties can lead to new electronic devices that are more robust and multi-functional.”
The finding has the potential to increase graphene’s use in computers, as in computer chips that use electronic spin to store data.
Study results appeared online earlier this month in Physical Review Letters.
The magnetic insulator Shi and his team used was yttrium iron garnet grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy in his lab. The researchers placed a single-layer graphene sheet on an atomically smooth layer of yttrium iron garnet. They found that yttrium iron garnet magnetized the graphene sheet. In other words, graphene simply borrows the magnetic properties from yttrium iron garnet.
Magnetic substances like iron tend to interfere with graphene’s electrical conduction. The researchers avoided those substances and chose yttrium iron garnet because they knew it worked as an electric insulator, which meant that it would not disrupt graphene’s electrical transport properties. By not doping the graphene sheet but simply placing it on the layer of yttrium iron garnet, they ensured that graphene’s excellent electrical transport properties remained unchanged.
In their experiments, Shi and his team exposed the graphene to an external magnetic field.  They found that graphene’s Hall voltage – a voltage in the perpendicular direction to the current flow – depended linearly on the magnetization of yttrium iron garnet (a phenomenon known as the anomalous Hall effect, seen in magnetic materials like iron and cobalt).  This confirmed that their graphene sheet had turned magnetic.
Shi was joined in the study by UC Riverside’s Zhiyong Wang (first author of the research paper), Chi Tang, Raymond Sachs and Yafis Barlas.
Grants to Shi and his team members from the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation supported the research.