pgtruspace's blog

about things that interest me.

Volcano in Rome has signs of life

A volcano in Rome has come back to life

Scientists are saying a dormant volcano on the outskirts of Rome is poised for an eruption. However, this may not occur for a number of years.

Researchers were stunned after they discovered Colli Albani, a volcano that was presumed extinct, is active once again.

This comes after a new report showed new steam vents, earthquakes and a rise in hill level in surrounding areas leads.

Alban Hills wikipedia

The Alban Hills (Italian Colli Albani) are the site of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Rome and about 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Anzio.

The dominant peak (but not the highest) is Monte Cavo at 950 m. There are two small calderas which contain lakes, Lago Albano and Lake Nemi. The rock of the hills is called Peperino (lapis albanus) a particular Tuff, a combination of ash and small rocks that is useful for construction, and provides a mineral-rich substrate for grape vines.

The area was inhabited by the Latini during the 5th to 3rd centuries BC. The ancient Romans called them Albanus Mons. On the summit was the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris, in which the consuls celebrated the Feriae Latinae, and several generals celebrated victories here when they were not accorded regular triumphs in Rome. The temple has not survived, but the Via Triumphalis leading up to it may still be seen.

The hills, especially around the shores of the lakes, have been popular since prehistoric times. From the 9th to 7th century BC there were numerous villages (see the legendary Alba Longa and Tusculum). In Roman times these villages were inhabited as a way to escape the heat and crowds of Rome, and there are many villas and country houses in the area.

Studies have found the volcano operates in a cycle of a 31,000-year dormancy to eruption period. Colli Albani last erupted 36,000 years ago. Fabrizio Marra, a volcanologist, believes the next eruption could be in 1,000 years.

Scientists are also saying that when the volcano does erupt, it has potential to be equally as destructive as Mount Vesuvius, which caused mass destruction in Pompeii back in 79 A.D.

Marra hopes these findings will serve as a “wake-up call,” and encourage fellow scientists to more closely monitor the volcano moving forward.

Volcanic activity

Examination of deposits have dated the four most recent eruptions to two temporal peaks, around 36,000 and 39,000 years ago.[1][2] The area exhibits small localized earthquake swarms, bradyseism, and release of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide into the atmosphere. The uplift and earthquake swarms have been interpreted as caused by a slowly growing spherical magma chamber 5-6 kilometers below the surface; some think that it may erupt again; if so, there is risk to Rome, which is only 25 to 30 km away.

The volcano emits large amounts of carbon dioxide.[6] This can potentially reach lethal concentrations if it accumulates in depressions in the ground in the absence of wind. The asphyxiation of 29 cows in September 1999 prompted a detailed survey, which found that concentration of the gas at 1.5 m above the ground in a residential area on the northwestern flank sometimes exceeded the occupational health threshold of 0.5%.

There are prophecies that say, Rome will be destroyed by earthquake and fire…pg

PG’s Oatmeal Cookies

 

PG’s Oatmeal cookies, Two of these is a serving of oatmeal! You can’t eat one!

My inability to get to the local cookie shop, 40 miles away, has forced me to attempt to make my own. A good Oatmeal Cooky is a must in my cooky jar.  Most recipes are regular cookies with oatmeal added and maybe raisins as well.  So after many disappointing results from published recipes, I decided to create my own recipe for Oatmeal and nut cookies. The aim, to make the cookies with lots of oatmeal. So I grind 2-cups of oatmeal to flour to reduce the need for as much wheat flour and added lots more oatmeal, then more eggs to glue it all together! The 3 spice is just enough to add a tiny bit of flavor to the bland oatmeal mix.
dry ingredients: mix in a bowl,  set aside
1-1/2 cups – all purpose flour
2 cups – Oat flour
1 tsp – baking powder
1 tsp – baking soda
1 tsp – salt
2 tsp – 3 spice mix (I use equal amounts of ground nutmeg, cloves and cinnamon)

Grind or fine chop 1-1/2 cups of nuts, set aside (I used walnuts, pecans might be better)
5 cups – old fashion oatmeal,  set aside ( you might prefer 4 cups for more flavor)
break 4 extra large eggs into a bowl,  set aside
note: Important get the egg liquid amount right ! 

In your large mixing bowl add:
16 Tbs – butter, ( 2 sticks ) soft or room temperature
1 cup – granulated sugar
1 cup – packed brown sugar
mix butter and sugar to a heavy cream texture, takes about 5-6 minutes. The mix of butter and sugar is very important for good cookies, take your time and do it right!
add eggs and mix well
slowly add flour ( dry ingredients mix )
and then incorporate the oatmeal followed by the chopped nuts
The dough should be moderately stiff and a bit sticky. Let the dough age at least 30 minuets so the oats can moisten and dry the dough.
Onto your prepared cooking sheet, make into 1-1/4 inch size balls.
Do not Flatten! they will sag enough as they cook, if you flatten them they will be thin and tough
Cook in a 350F preheated oven, for about 15 -16 minutes, or just barely browned.  They will finish about 3 inches in diameter at 3/4 inch thick. Somewhat smooth surface with small cracks. Allow to cool a bit before transferring from cooking sheet as they will be a bit tender while hot. This should yield over 3 dozen cookies…pg

See if you can eat just one! …pg

Are Climate changes caused by Solar activity variations ?

Documentation of the solar activity variations and it’s influence on climate

Dimitris Poulos
 

Abstract of paper from: gpcpublishing.com

The four planets that influence the most the solar surface through tidal forcing seem to affect the Earth climate. A simple two cosine model with periods 251 years, of the seasonality of the Earth – Venus syzygies, and 265.4 years, of the combined syzygies of Jupiter and Mercury with Earth when Earth is in synod with Venus, fits well the Northern Hemisphere temperatures of the last 1000 years as reconstructed by Jones et al (1998). The physical mechanism proposed is that planetary gravitational forces drive solar activity that in turn drives temperature variations in earth. The sun is in a boundary balance state at one hand collapsing due to gravity and at the other hand expanding due to fusion, and as such it should be heavily influenced by minimal external forcings such as planetary gravity. Sound waves in the solar mass, created from the planetary movement, are responsible for the formation of solar corona and sun spots. The Earth-Venus 251 year resonance is resonant to a near surface solar layer’s thermal natural frequency that “explodes” to form solar wind. The calculated solar wind properties match the observed.

 link to  pdf

Solar energy output.

Energy creation and output from the Sun is a factor of matter-energy density. Whether Fission or Fusion, changes in matter-energy density causes changes in Neutron decay or creation and therefor energy creation and output.

Just like a boiling pot of water that has a pressure set 212f /100c temperature of output, so the sun has a pressure set temperature of output, or TSI ( Total Solar Irradiance)  .surface temperature of approximately 5,778 K (5,505 °C, 9,941 °F). This is very stable. Just like the pot of water, changes in energy are manifest as “steam” wind output changes and not temperature change. During changes in solar output there are changes in the spectral signature of the solar TSI  Moving toward the higher frequencies as the output increases. Lower frequencies penetrate deeper into the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans but higher frequencies carry more energy.

The solar system is composed of a number of Sun orbiting bodies. Each causes some amount of gravitational pull on the solar body, as their position changes it changes the position of the center of gravity of the solar system

Changes in the Solar System center of gravity causes the solar body to move to and fro In it’s attempt to center it’s self with the local gravitational field. While there is an argument that this makes no difference as the sun is in “free-fall”.  All of the sun has mass, mass that resists changes in motion. Local tidal movements cause changes in local matter-energy density causing changes in local Fission/Fusion and therefore energy creation and output being caused by the position changes of the orbiting planets…pg

Summer Solstice

Once again the Terra – Luna pair have circled the Solar dance floor, the northern hemisphere is now exposed to the solar furnace and the southern one the cold of deep space. Enjoy! soon enough that orientation will reverse and it will be our turn to shiver.
For the the time being I am enjoying the spell of growing green life all around me and the promise of the sun warmed bounty from the fruitful earth. Consumed the first tasty morsels today, A few Giant Blackberries, a hint of the Summer harvest to come😎.
Thanks be to the GOD that makes this miracle of sun, water and carbon…pg

Moonrise begins: celebrate the marriage of warmth, water and carbon in this circle of life along with a full moon to light the festivities.

https://churchofsacredcarbon.wordpress.com/2016/06/19/summer-solstice-and-a-full-moon/

See Tallblokes Talkshop blog post below. 😎 …pg

Summer solstice to coincide with full moon for first time in 70 years

Once again the cycles of Earth, moon and sun have been fulfilled…pg

Tallbloke's Talkshop

Credit: NASA Credit: NASA

Strictly speaking it’s been 68 years but we get the idea.
For links to videos see the original IB Times report
.

For the first time in 70 years, the full moon will rise on the day of the summer solstice. The rare astronomical event will occur on Monday (20 June 2016) and will be observed all around the world.

Solstices happen twice a year and correspond to the moment when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point from Earth as it orbits the Sun.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the June solstice marks the beginning of summer and is the longest day of the year, because it has the longest period of daylight. [Well, yes.]

View original post 201 more words

Triple Peanut Cookies

Triple the peanuts of PB cookies, these are addictive, so beware. You can’t eat one!

My inability to get to the local cookie shop, 40 miles away, has forced me to attempt to make my own. Peanut Butter being my favorite type. After many disappointing results from published recipes, I decided to create my own. There are many kinds of peanut butter sold, depending on the additives used and the amount of peanut oil removed, so that is a contributing factor to flavor and consistency of the results. So beware, results may vary. The peanut flour and chopped/ground roasted peanuts help to minimize this problem and make these cookies the peanutty-est!
dry ingredients: mix in a bowl,  set aside
2-1/2 cups – all purpose flour
1 cup – peanut flour
1 tsp – baking powder
1 tsp – baking soda
1 tsp – salt
Grind or fine chop 1 cup of roasted peanuts,  set aside.
1 cup – crunchy peanut butter,  set aside
break 2 extra large eggs or 3 medium eggs ( 2/3 to 3/4 cup of egg liquid),  set aside
note: Important get the egg liquid amount right !  2 large eggs are not quite enough.

In your large mixing bowl add:
16 Tbs – butter, ( 2 sticks ) soft or room temperature
1 cup – granulated sugar
1 cup – packed brown sugar
mix butter and sugar to a heavy cream texture, takes about 6 minutes
mix in peanut butter
mix in 2 teaspoons vanilla extract, add eggs and mix well
slowly add flour ( dry ingredients mix )
and then incorporate the ground/chopped peanuts
The dough should be moderately stiff and oily to the feel.
Onto your prepared cooking sheet, make into 1-1/4 inch size balls.
Flatten to the thickness you want the finished cookies to be.
Cook in a 350F preheated oven, for about 13 – 14 minutes, or just barely browned edges. As they cook they get bigger in diameter but not much thicker. They will finish a bit over 3 inches in diameter at 1/2 inch thick. Somewhat smooth surface with small cracks. Allow to cool a bit before transferring from cooking sheet as they will be a bit tender while hot. This should yield over 3 dozen cookies…pg

Note: they get even better with a day or two of ageing, if you can resist the temptation. My lady complains about these cookies when ever I make them. Generally while eating one.  ;-)  …pg

Discovery of Gravity Waves?

Febuary 11 2016  LIGO   cal.tech

LIGO announces discovery of gravity waves.  pdf

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES DETECTED 100 YEARS AFTER EINSTEIN’S PREDICTION    https://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/gravity-wave-space.jpg?w=720&h=443

 A pictorial representation of gravity waves in the fabric of space caused by 2 black holes spiraling together

Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory:

For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.
The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory
(LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA.
The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT. The discovery, accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters, was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
The twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors,

https://i0.wp.com/ligo.org/science/GW-Overview/images/LHO_tn.jpg

Aerial view of the LIGO detector in Hanford, WA. [Image: LIGO] – See more at: http://ligo.org/science/GW-Detecting.php#sthash.vwdtW7Hp.dpuf
Basic Design of the LIGO Interferometer
Layout of the LIGO Interferometer that measures the warpage of the earth as the force passes through the material of the planet. Lasers measure the differences in distance between the detectors as the earth is effected by the passing wave. The use of two observatories revels the direction of the point of origin.
At each observatory, the two-and-a-half-mile (4-km) long L-shaped LIGO interferometer uses laser light split into two beams that travel back and forth down the arms (four-foot diameter tubes kept under a near-perfect vacuum). The beams are used to monitor the distance between mirrors precisely positioned at the ends of the arms. According to Einstein’s theory, the distance between the mirrors will change by an infinitesimal amount when a gravitational wave passes by the detector. A change in the lengths of the arms smaller than one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton, (10 to the-19) meter, can be detected.
_________________________________________________________________

Now that I have the experiment information down I can make my own remarks. A good follow up article on the experiment and it’s equipment.

The detection of gravitational waves – a triumph of science enabled by fossil fuels

It is wonderful that real experiments are carried out and reported on. But I reserve the right to infer my own conclusions from the results…pg

A tale of the first Solo flight

The airplane involved was a beautiful twin of the one below.

PIPER COLT

PA-22-108  Piper Colt  Specifications:

The airplane is a two-place, high wing, single engine airplane equipped with tricycle landing gear, constructed of welded steel tubing covered with Grade “A” fabric and finished with fire resistant butyrate dope.
This airplane is certified in the normal and utility category. In the normal category all aerobatic maneuvers including spins are prohibited. See the aircraft’s P.O.H. for approved maneuvers when in the utility category. The airplane is approved for day and night VFR/IFR operations when equipped in accordance with F.A.R. 91 or F.A.R 135.

The aircraft is powered by a Lycoming O-235-C1B or C1 and is rated at 108 horsepower. It is a four cylinder, normally aspirated, direct drive, air cooled, horizontally opposed, carburetor equipped engine.

The fuel for the Colt is carried in an 18-gallon fuel tank located in the inboard end of the left wing. As optional equipment, an auxiliary tank, located in the right wing, provides an additional 18 gallons of fuel. The auxiliary tank must be used in level flight only. An electric fuel gauge for each tank is located on the instrument panel.

Electrical power for the Colt is supplied by a 12 volt, direct current system. For all normal operations, power is provided by a 12 volt, 25-ampere generator. A 12-volt, 24 ampere battery is used in the system to furnish power for starting as a reserve power source.

_____________________________________________________________

So begins the tale;

In early 1968 I was station at the U.S.Navy Base at Subic Bay, Philippines and decided that learning to fly was an interesting talent to pursue. There was a flying club at the adjoining Cubi Point Naval Air Station that provided aircraft and instruction to members, so I joined.  The club had two PA-22s for our training use, two  T-34s for more advanced use, as well as certificated instructors that were available to hire for the members.

After 10 hours of ground school, the flight training began. My instructor, a former Alaskan Bush Pilot.   After filing a flight plan with  air operations we pre-flight the airplane, kick the tires, check the fuel, untie the airplane from it’s anchors and fire up the engine, Cool!  Call up uniflight for taxi instructions to the flight line and then call up the tower. Identify ourselves, We are ready for take off.

The Navy of that time felt that it was a good idea to have semi trained pilots available to act as co-pilots with real Naval Pilots in case of an emergency need to move all of their airplanes during a pilot shortage. At least that was the excuse that was used to justify our use of military facilities for “Private club” use. At times we helped with the on the job training of the new tower controllers under much slower conditions then existed during Jet operations. It was kind of cool to be flying a brightly colored, rag covered, powered box kite among the heavy jets dressed in their somber warpaint. Just need to, NOT get in their way.

After clearance to take off, we depart the area toward the north over Subic City to an old, out of the way dirt strip, 20 miles out in the jungle, to practice flight maneuvers as well as touch & go, landing / takeoffs. After several of these we return to the base pattern and land after 2-1/2 to 3 hours of flight time.

After one of these touch & goes during the third day of instruction the instructor asked me to land and stop on the end of the dirt strip. He opened his door, hopped out, and said “Take her around on your own”.  OMG! ,,,,,Er ok. After 7 hours of total flight time I’m not so sure I am ready for this.

Well, I sped up the engine, taxi to the down wind of the runway, turned into the breeze, fire walled the throttle and with 200lbs less weight in the airplane it quickly took off, almost jumped into the air and quickly rose to 3,000 feet!  I flew a nice square pattern and soon found myself lined up with the down wind end of the runway.  Time to begin the decent back to the GROUND. I set up the aircraft trim for landing, throttled back, carburetor heat on to prevent ice buildup inside the carburetor and add a click of flaps to improve slow speed lift and slow the decent speed. This is not so bad, good glide slope, lined up with the runway. Everything looks good.

Just as I flare out to touch down, a hard cross wind hits, the airplane is floating off of the runway and over the 6 foot tall elephant grass.

OH CRAP!  I am nursing the aircraft controls to keep it on the ground effect bubble to keep the wheels out of the tall grass. Get rid of the power robbing carb-heat, smoothly adding throttle so the engine speeds up without stalling, and soon it all works. Air speed increases, I’m flying again! Slowly I get rid of flaps, gain airspeed and altitude.

I’m up in the air with airspeed and altitude, life is good, but the instructor is still standing on the end of the runway, 20 miles out in the jungle.

Back into the landing pattern I go. Now! how do I land in a stiff cross wind? Well I do remember hearing this discussed by other pilots. Maybe even mentioned during ground school instruction.

As I approach the end of the runway the plane is crabbed a good 30 degrees into the wind to move inline with the center of the runway. The trick is to fly in as slow as possible with some power and some flaps and as the wheels touch the ground, rotate the airplane into the runway centerline, get rid of flaps and power, push the nose down and apply the brakes.

Wow! it worked, not even a bounce.

 

I slowly taxied up to the instructor, he opened the door and got in.

Didn’t say a word, just sat there. The engine just kicking over in a slow idle  …………  …………..  ……….  ………….  …………  ………..  ……….  ……….  ……….  ……….  ……….

er, How did I do?

“Well,” he says, “You took off just fine, flew a nice square pattern, lined up a clean glide slope, flared out to land, just then that cross wind hit you. Off the runway you went into the elephant grass.  I was sure that I would have to walk back to the base, through 20 miles of jungle and explain to the base executive officer how I lost a pilot and plane.

You got it flying again! As you went by I figured you would just fly back to the base and land. This was not so bad, I would just have to hike those 20 miles back to the base and explain why my pilot came home alone.

Then, you went back into the pattern and tried to land into that cross wind. Again, I was sure that I would have to hike back to the base and explain how I lost a plane and pilot. And you landed it just like you knew what you were doing.”

“I will sign off on your logbook, you are cleared to fly solo!”

After that, an airplane just felt like an extension of me. Flying was as natural as walking or riding a bike.  8-)   pg

Senate votes to ban taxes on internet

Senate votes to permanently ban taxes on internet services

By Jon Martindale — February 12, 2016

Running in line with some people’s thinking that Internet access should be a basic right, the U.S. Senate has voted to ban taxes levied on Internet access from ever being enacted. Known as the Permanent Internet Tax Freedom Act, it replaces and extends an already existing 18-year ban on Internet-related taxes that came to an end in October last year.
Although Internet access is a major component of the legislation, it also covers other aspects of the Internet. It prevents, for example, anyone from levying taxes that could target Internet-based services which are not otherwise available.
Several organizations have praised the legislation, with the Council for Citizens Against Government Waste in particular voicing its approval. It called it a “taxpayer victory,” suggesting that it would help prevent overbearing charges placed unfairly on consumers (as per PCWorld).
Read more: http://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/senate-votes-to-permanently-ban-internet-access-taxes

California, Drought or poor management

Victor Davis Hanson
The Scorching of California
How Green extremists made a bad drought worse
Winter 2015

MICAH ALBERT/REDUX
The drought has threatened to turn large tracts of farmland into dust.

In mid-December, the first large storms in three years drenched California. No one knows whether the rain and snow will continue—only that it must last for weeks if a record three-year drought, both natural and man-made, is to end. In the 1970s, coastal elites squelched California’s near-century-long commitment to building dams, reservoirs, and canals, even as the Golden State’s population ballooned. Court-ordered drainage of man-made lakes, meant to restore fish to the 1,100-square-mile Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, partly caused central California’s reservoir water to dry up. Not content with preventing construction of new water infrastructure, environmentalists reverse-engineered existing projects to divert precious water away from agriculture, privileging the needs of fish over the needs of people. Then they alleged that global warming, not their own foolish policies, had caused the current crisis.    For the rest of the article

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Very good but long read for the history of the present California water shortages.

Our main problem is politically directed bad management and not an unprecedented water shortage. California historically is very wet or very dry and the paradise that people here expect to enjoy is the creation of man and not god. The natural California is one of swamp or desert often in the same place during the same year.

Lake Sacramento the book pdf. History of the major floods 1700s though 1900s in the Central Valley.

Friends of Governor Brown plan to create two new cities in the south state, connected by the fast rail line. They need water for those cities and are establishing the legal system to take that water from Central Valley farmers that own those rights.
Follow the money! And the taxpayers of the state will PAY vast billions into the pockets of these developers.
Ecoloons and Federal Judges are just convenient tools…pg

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